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Title: iPTF 16hgs: A Double-peaked Ca-rich Gap Transient in a Metal-poor, Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy

Abstract

Calcium-rich gap transients represent an intriguing new class of faint and fast-evolving supernovae that exhibit strong [Ca II] emission in their nebular phase spectra. Here in this paper, we present the discovery and follow-up observations of a faint and fast-evolving transient, iPTF 16hgs, that exhibited a double-peaked light curve. Exhibiting a Type Ib spectrum in the photospheric phase and an early transition to a [Ca II] dominated nebular phase, iPTF 16hgs shows properties consistent with the class of Ca-rich gap transients, with two important exceptions. First, while the second peak of the light curve is similar to other Ca-rich gap transients, the first blue and fast-fading peak (declining over ≈2 days) is unique to this source. Second, we find that iPTF 16hgs occurred in the outskirts (projected offset of ≈6 kpc ≈ 1.9 R eff) of a low-metallicity (≈0.4 Z ), star-forming, dwarf spiral galaxy. Deep limits from late-time radio observations suggest a low-density environment for the source. If iPTF 16hgs shares explosion physics with the class of Ca-rich gap transients, the first peak can be explained by the presence of 0.01 M of 56Ni in the outer layers the ejecta, reminiscent of some models of He-shell detonations onmore » WDs. However, if iPTF 16hgs is physically unrelated to the class, the first peak is consistent with shock cooling emission (of an envelope with a mass of ≈0.08 M and radius of ≈13 R ) in a core-collapse explosion of a highly stripped massive star in a close binary system.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [5];  [1] more »;  [5] « less
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Centre for Astrophysics
  2. Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy
  3. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  4. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States). Astrophysics Science Division; Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Space-Science Inst.
  5. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics
  6. Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics
  7. National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Astronomy and Department of Physics
  8. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre
  9. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
  10. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  11. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.
  12. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1480818
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 866; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (iPTF 16hgs); surveys

Citation Formats

De, Kishalay, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Cantwell, Therese, Cao, Yi, Cenko, S. Bradley, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Johansson, Joel, Kong, Albert, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Lunnan, Ragnhild, Masci, Frank, Matuszewski, Matt, Mooley, Kunal P., Neill, James D., Nugent, Peter E., Ofek, Eran O., Perrott, Yvette, Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Rubin, Adam, Sullivan, Donal O’, and Yaron, Ofer. iPTF 16hgs: A Double-peaked Ca-rich Gap Transient in a Metal-poor, Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aadf8e.
De, Kishalay, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Cantwell, Therese, Cao, Yi, Cenko, S. Bradley, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Johansson, Joel, Kong, Albert, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Lunnan, Ragnhild, Masci, Frank, Matuszewski, Matt, Mooley, Kunal P., Neill, James D., Nugent, Peter E., Ofek, Eran O., Perrott, Yvette, Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Rubin, Adam, Sullivan, Donal O’, & Yaron, Ofer. iPTF 16hgs: A Double-peaked Ca-rich Gap Transient in a Metal-poor, Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aadf8e.
De, Kishalay, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Cantwell, Therese, Cao, Yi, Cenko, S. Bradley, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Johansson, Joel, Kong, Albert, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Lunnan, Ragnhild, Masci, Frank, Matuszewski, Matt, Mooley, Kunal P., Neill, James D., Nugent, Peter E., Ofek, Eran O., Perrott, Yvette, Rebbapragada, Umaa D., Rubin, Adam, Sullivan, Donal O’, and Yaron, Ofer. Wed . "iPTF 16hgs: A Double-peaked Ca-rich Gap Transient in a Metal-poor, Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aadf8e. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480818.
@article{osti_1480818,
title = {iPTF 16hgs: A Double-peaked Ca-rich Gap Transient in a Metal-poor, Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy},
author = {De, Kishalay and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Cantwell, Therese and Cao, Yi and Cenko, S. Bradley and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Johansson, Joel and Kong, Albert and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Masci, Frank and Matuszewski, Matt and Mooley, Kunal P. and Neill, James D. and Nugent, Peter E. and Ofek, Eran O. and Perrott, Yvette and Rebbapragada, Umaa D. and Rubin, Adam and Sullivan, Donal O’ and Yaron, Ofer},
abstractNote = {Calcium-rich gap transients represent an intriguing new class of faint and fast-evolving supernovae that exhibit strong [Ca II] emission in their nebular phase spectra. Here in this paper, we present the discovery and follow-up observations of a faint and fast-evolving transient, iPTF 16hgs, that exhibited a double-peaked light curve. Exhibiting a Type Ib spectrum in the photospheric phase and an early transition to a [Ca II] dominated nebular phase, iPTF 16hgs shows properties consistent with the class of Ca-rich gap transients, with two important exceptions. First, while the second peak of the light curve is similar to other Ca-rich gap transients, the first blue and fast-fading peak (declining over ≈2 days) is unique to this source. Second, we find that iPTF 16hgs occurred in the outskirts (projected offset of ≈6 kpc ≈ 1.9 R eff) of a low-metallicity (≈0.4 Z ⊙), star-forming, dwarf spiral galaxy. Deep limits from late-time radio observations suggest a low-density environment for the source. If iPTF 16hgs shares explosion physics with the class of Ca-rich gap transients, the first peak can be explained by the presence of 0.01 M ⊙ of 56Ni in the outer layers the ejecta, reminiscent of some models of He-shell detonations on WDs. However, if iPTF 16hgs is physically unrelated to the class, the first peak is consistent with shock cooling emission (of an envelope with a mass of ≈0.08 M ⊙ and radius of ≈13 R ⊙) in a core-collapse explosion of a highly stripped massive star in a close binary system.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aadf8e},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 1,
volume = 866,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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ULTRA-STRIPPED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE FROM CLOSE BINARY EVOLUTION
journal, November 2013


Ultra-stripped supernovae: progenitors and fate
journal, June 2015

  • Tauris, Thomas M.; Langer, Norbert; Podsiadlowski, Philipp
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 451, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv990

RADIO EMISSION FROM SN 1994I IN NGC 5194 (M 51): THE BEST-STUDIED TYPE Ib/c RADIO SUPERNOVA
journal, October 2011

  • Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Stockdale, Christopher
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 740, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/740/2/79

The peculiar Type Ia supernova iPTF14atg: Chandrasekhar-mass explosion or violent merger?
journal, April 2016

  • Kromer, M.; Fremling, C.; Pakmor, R.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 459, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw962

THERMONUCLEAR .Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM HELIUM SHELL DETONATIONS: EXPLOSION MODELS AND OBSERVABLES
journal, May 2010


The Automated Palomar 60 Inch Telescope
journal, October 2006

  • Cenko, S. Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Moon, Dae‐Sik
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 118, Issue 848
  • DOI: 10.1086/508366

Hot gas around SN 1998bw: Inferring the progenitor from its environment
journal, June 2017


An ultraviolet–optical flare from the tidal disruption of a helium-rich stellar core
journal, May 2012


SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE ( WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
journal, January 2011

  • Komatsu, E.; Smith, K. M.; Dunkley, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 192, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/192/2/18

Intergalactic Medium Emission Observations with the Cosmic web Imager. i. the Circum-Qso Medium of qso 1549+19, and Evidence for a Filamentary gas Inflow
journal, April 2014

  • Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 786, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/786/2/106

DETAILED RADIO VIEW ON TWO STELLAR EXPLOSIONS AND THEIR HOST GALAXY: XRF 080109/SN 2008D AND SN 2007uy in NGC 2770
journal, December 2010


A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova
journal, May 2015

  • Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, S. R.; Howell, D. Andrew
  • Nature, Vol. 521, Issue 7552
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14440

Time-dependent models of accretion discs with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star
journal, June 2016

  • Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1410

A deep Search for Prompt Radio Emission from Thermonuclear Supernovae with the very Large Array
journal, April 2016

  • Chomiuk, Laura; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chevalier, Roger A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 821, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/821/2/119

Double-detonation sub-Chandrasekhar supernovae: can minimum helium shell masses detonate the core?
journal, May 2010


Real-time Recovery Efficiencies and Performance of the Palomar Transient Factory’s Transient Discovery Pipeline
journal, May 2017

  • Frohmaier, C.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 230, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aa6d70

A new method for estimating the bolometric properties of Ibc supernovae
journal, July 2013

  • Cano, Zach
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 434, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1048

Explosions of O-Ne-Mg cores, the Crab supernova, and subluminous type II-P supernovae
journal, April 2006


[O iii]/[N ii] as an abundance indicator at high redshift
journal, March 2004


WISeREP—An Interactive Supernova Data Repository
journal, July 2012

  • Yaron, Ofer; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 917
  • DOI: 10.1086/666656

RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE Ic SN 2007gr REVEAL AN ORDINARY, NON-RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSION
journal, November 2010


DISCOVERY, PROGENITOR AND EARLY EVOLUTION OF A STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVA iPTF13bvn
journal, August 2013


Calcium-Rich gap Transients: Solving the Calcium Conundrum in the Intracluster Medium
journal, December 2013

  • Mulchaey, John S.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kollmeier, Juna A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 780, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/780/2/L34

The peculiar mass-loss history of SN 2014C as revealed through AMI radio observations
journal, December 2016

  • Anderson, G. E.; Horesh, A.; Mooley, K. P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 466, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw3310

Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: Realtime Image Subtraction Pipeline
journal, September 2016

  • Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 128, Issue 969
  • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/128/969/114502

A digital correlator upgrade for the Arcminute MicroKelvin Imager
journal, January 2018

  • Hickish, Jack; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Perrott, Yvette C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 475, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty074

Optical Thermonuclear Transients from Tidal Compression of White Dwarfs as Tracers of the low end of the Massive Black hole mass Function
journal, February 2016

  • MacLeod, Morgan; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 819, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/819/1/3

iPTF15eqv: Multiwavelength Exposé of a Peculiar Calcium-rich Transient
journal, August 2017

  • Milisavljevic, Dan; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Raymond, John C.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 846, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa7d9f

Nucleosynthesis in Stars and the Chemical Enrichment of Galaxies
journal, August 2013


The Arcminute Microkelvin Imager
journal, December 2008


The Expulsion of Stellar Envelopes in Core‐Collapse Supernovae
journal, January 1999

  • Matzner, Christopher D.; McKee, Christopher F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 510, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/306571

Follow-up observations at 16 and 33���GHz of extragalactic sources from WMAP 3-yr data: I ��� Spectral properties
journal, December 2009

  • Davies, Matthew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Davies, Rod D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 400, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15518.x