skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Evaluating the World Infrared Standard Group Field Campaign Report

Abstract

The standard to which broadband infrared irradiance radiometers (pyrgeometers) are compared is called the World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in Davos, Switzerland, at the World Radiation Center. WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using the absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR; Philipona 2001). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility has recently adopted this as its standard and all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers in ARM are currently being calibrated by transfer calibrations from WISG. Subsequently, the ASR has fallen out of operation, Julian Gröbner (2012) developed the infrared integrating sphere (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda (2012) developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The IRIS and ACP make absolute measurements of broadband downwelling infrared irradiance using different approaches. These two instruments have been compared to each other and to the WISG (Gröbner et al. 2014). The two newer instruments agreed within about 1 Wm-2 with each other, but not with the WISG, which was 2-5 Wm-2 lower depending on the column water vapor loading. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Gröbner and Reda, basing their suggestion on a total of nine hours of simultaneous IRIS and ACPmore » comparison data as well as data from 177 clear-sky nights between the IRIS and WISG radiometers from October 2009 to December 2013 (Gröbner et al. 2014). These findings were later confirmed during the second International Pyrgeometer Comparison (IPgC-II) held in September/October 2015 at Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD)/World Radiation Center (WRC), bringing the total to about 20 hours of simultaneous ACP and IRIS measurements spread across two years and five days, in the mountainous environment of Davos. For this campaign, the WISG evaluation team deployed several instruments for absolute infrared radiation measurements and pyrgeometers that have been tied to the original standard (ASR) to ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) atmospheric observatory in the fall of 2017. The experiment was carried out in two phases in order to increase the probability of collecting measurements at a range of water vapor column values, to which the measurements have shown some dependence. Phase 1 of the deployment ran from October 15 to 28, and Phase 2 ran from November 26 to December 9. Four redundant IRIS and two redundant ACP made coincident measurements during this time (the ASR no longer being available for comparison). The link to the WISG was provided by two pyrgeometers calibrated relative to the WISG prior to the campaign at SGP and also measuring coincidently with the two absolute radiometers. In addition, three of the original pyrgeometers directly tied to the original ASR were deployed. (See Figure 1 for instrument setup.) The experiment took place in the fall when water vapor columns were expected to range below and above the 1-cm level that is crucial for ferreting out the water vapor dependence of these measurements that has been noted in Gröbner et al. 2014 and other measurements. An additional source of longwave radiation flux observations was provided by the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI). The AERI measures downwelling spectral radiance from 3.3 to 19 μm with a calibration that is better than 1% of the ambient radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004), and so serves as a potential source of evaluation for the WISG. The AERI’s field of view is 2 degrees, and is directed towards zenith. Earlier ARM projects led by Tony Clough as part of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) effort demonstrated how to derive longwave flux from these zenith radiance observations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [3]
  1. Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center
  2. University of Colorado
  3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  4. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
DOE Office of Science Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Contributing Org.:
Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, University of Colorado/Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences
OSTI Identifier:
1480270
Report Number(s):
DOE/SC-ARM-18-027
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-ACO5-7601830
Resource Type:
Program Document
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
AERI, instrument calibration, Southern Great Plains, infrared radiation, radiometers, pyrgeometers, water vapor, Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model

Citation Formats

Grobner, Julian, Hall, Emiel, Long, Charles, McComiskey, Allison, Michalsky, Joseph, Reda, Ibrahim, and Turner, David D. Evaluating the World Infrared Standard Group Field Campaign Report. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Grobner, Julian, Hall, Emiel, Long, Charles, McComiskey, Allison, Michalsky, Joseph, Reda, Ibrahim, & Turner, David D. Evaluating the World Infrared Standard Group Field Campaign Report. United States.
Grobner, Julian, Hall, Emiel, Long, Charles, McComiskey, Allison, Michalsky, Joseph, Reda, Ibrahim, and Turner, David D. Wed . "Evaluating the World Infrared Standard Group Field Campaign Report". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1480270.
@article{osti_1480270,
title = {Evaluating the World Infrared Standard Group Field Campaign Report},
author = {Grobner, Julian and Hall, Emiel and Long, Charles and McComiskey, Allison and Michalsky, Joseph and Reda, Ibrahim and Turner, David D},
abstractNote = {The standard to which broadband infrared irradiance radiometers (pyrgeometers) are compared is called the World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), maintained in Davos, Switzerland, at the World Radiation Center. WISG consists of four pyrgeometers that were calibrated using the absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR; Philipona 2001). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) user facility has recently adopted this as its standard and all Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) pyrgeometers in ARM are currently being calibrated by transfer calibrations from WISG. Subsequently, the ASR has fallen out of operation, Julian Gröbner (2012) developed the infrared integrating sphere (IRIS) radiometer, and Ibrahim Reda (2012) developed the absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP). The IRIS and ACP make absolute measurements of broadband downwelling infrared irradiance using different approaches. These two instruments have been compared to each other and to the WISG (Gröbner et al. 2014). The two newer instruments agreed within about 1 Wm-2 with each other, but not with the WISG, which was 2-5 Wm-2 lower depending on the column water vapor loading. Consequently, a case for changing the current WISG has been made by Gröbner and Reda, basing their suggestion on a total of nine hours of simultaneous IRIS and ACP comparison data as well as data from 177 clear-sky nights between the IRIS and WISG radiometers from October 2009 to December 2013 (Gröbner et al. 2014). These findings were later confirmed during the second International Pyrgeometer Comparison (IPgC-II) held in September/October 2015 at Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD)/World Radiation Center (WRC), bringing the total to about 20 hours of simultaneous ACP and IRIS measurements spread across two years and five days, in the mountainous environment of Davos. For this campaign, the WISG evaluation team deployed several instruments for absolute infrared radiation measurements and pyrgeometers that have been tied to the original standard (ASR) to ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) atmospheric observatory in the fall of 2017. The experiment was carried out in two phases in order to increase the probability of collecting measurements at a range of water vapor column values, to which the measurements have shown some dependence. Phase 1 of the deployment ran from October 15 to 28, and Phase 2 ran from November 26 to December 9. Four redundant IRIS and two redundant ACP made coincident measurements during this time (the ASR no longer being available for comparison). The link to the WISG was provided by two pyrgeometers calibrated relative to the WISG prior to the campaign at SGP and also measuring coincidently with the two absolute radiometers. In addition, three of the original pyrgeometers directly tied to the original ASR were deployed. (See Figure 1 for instrument setup.) The experiment took place in the fall when water vapor columns were expected to range below and above the 1-cm level that is crucial for ferreting out the water vapor dependence of these measurements that has been noted in Gröbner et al. 2014 and other measurements. An additional source of longwave radiation flux observations was provided by the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI). The AERI measures downwelling spectral radiance from 3.3 to 19 μm with a calibration that is better than 1% of the ambient radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004), and so serves as a potential source of evaluation for the WISG. The AERI’s field of view is 2 degrees, and is directed towards zenith. Earlier ARM projects led by Tony Clough as part of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) effort demonstrated how to derive longwave flux from these zenith radiance observations.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

Program Document:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item.

Save / Share: