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Title: Classical topological order in the kinetics of artificial spin ice

Abstract

Systems of interacting nanomagnets known as artificial spin ice have allowed the design, realization and study of geometrically frustrated exotic collective states that are absent in natural magnets. We have experimentally measured the thermally induced moment fluctuations in the Shakti geometry of artificial spin ice. We show that its disordered moment configuration is a topological phase described by an emergent dimer-cover model with excitations that can be characterized as topologically charged defects. Examination of the low-energy dynamics of the system confirms that these effective topological charges have long lifetimes associated with their topological protection, that is, they can be created and annihilated only as charge pairs with opposite sign and are kinetically constrained. Here, this manifestation of classical topological order demonstrates that geometrical design in nanomagnetic systems can lead to emergent, topologically protected kinetics that can limit pathways to equilibration and ergodicity.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics, and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab.
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division, Inst. for Materials Science, and Center for Nonlinear Studies
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy
  5. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1479948
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1485098
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-29552
Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Lao, Yuyang, Caravelli, Francesco, Sheikh, Mohammed, Sklenar, Joseph, Gardeazabal, Daniel, Watts, Justin D., Albrecht, Alan M., Scholl, Andreas, Dahmen, Karin, Nisoli, Cristiano, and Schiffer, Peter. Classical topological order in the kinetics of artificial spin ice. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0077-0.
Lao, Yuyang, Caravelli, Francesco, Sheikh, Mohammed, Sklenar, Joseph, Gardeazabal, Daniel, Watts, Justin D., Albrecht, Alan M., Scholl, Andreas, Dahmen, Karin, Nisoli, Cristiano, & Schiffer, Peter. Classical topological order in the kinetics of artificial spin ice. United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0077-0.
Lao, Yuyang, Caravelli, Francesco, Sheikh, Mohammed, Sklenar, Joseph, Gardeazabal, Daniel, Watts, Justin D., Albrecht, Alan M., Scholl, Andreas, Dahmen, Karin, Nisoli, Cristiano, and Schiffer, Peter. Mon . "Classical topological order in the kinetics of artificial spin ice". United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-018-0077-0.
@article{osti_1479948,
title = {Classical topological order in the kinetics of artificial spin ice},
author = {Lao, Yuyang and Caravelli, Francesco and Sheikh, Mohammed and Sklenar, Joseph and Gardeazabal, Daniel and Watts, Justin D. and Albrecht, Alan M. and Scholl, Andreas and Dahmen, Karin and Nisoli, Cristiano and Schiffer, Peter},
abstractNote = {Systems of interacting nanomagnets known as artificial spin ice have allowed the design, realization and study of geometrically frustrated exotic collective states that are absent in natural magnets. We have experimentally measured the thermally induced moment fluctuations in the Shakti geometry of artificial spin ice. We show that its disordered moment configuration is a topological phase described by an emergent dimer-cover model with excitations that can be characterized as topologically charged defects. Examination of the low-energy dynamics of the system confirms that these effective topological charges have long lifetimes associated with their topological protection, that is, they can be created and annihilated only as charge pairs with opposite sign and are kinetically constrained. Here, this manifestation of classical topological order demonstrates that geometrical design in nanomagnetic systems can lead to emergent, topologically protected kinetics that can limit pathways to equilibration and ergodicity.},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-018-0077-0},
journal = {Nature Physics},
number = 7,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 02 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Mon Apr 02 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Thermal fluctuations in artificial spin ice
journal, June 2014

  • Kapaklis, Vassilios; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Farhan, Alan
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 7, p. 514-519
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.104