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Title: Seismic Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Fracture Generation During EGS Resource Development

Abstract

This DOE GTO funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology and the University of California at Berkeley. The project goal is to improve technology to assess in-situ stress magnitude and orientation, kinematic fracture parameters, rupture size, rupture orientation as well as temporal changes and volumetric distribution of the injected fluid during Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resource development. The project leveraged high-frequency seismic data recorded by the LBNL 34-station permanent geophone network and seismic broadband data recorded by a temporary 33-station seismometer network that operated in The Geysers during the injection phase of the DOE GTO funded EGS demonstration project at the well Prati-32. The operation of the broadband network with high station density and good azimuthal coverage to monitor the injection phase produced an unprecedented dataset that is typically unavailable for EGS operations. The two datasets offer the advantages of studying the parameters under investigation over a broader frequency band and the higher sensitivity of the broadband seismometers resulted in a richer dataset with a lower magnitude of completeness. Moment tensor (MT) inversion have been employed to develop a catalog of earthquake source solutions including moment tensor and finite source rupture area. This resulted in a 168-eventmore » waveform-based seismic moment tensor catalog for events 0.7≤Mw≤3.9 based on a semi-automated moment tensor analysis technique. The MT solutions were used for in-situ stress estimation during the EGS injection phases. We found an approximate 15-degree counterclockwise rotation of the least compressive stress sigma-3, and a rotation of the maximum compressive stress sigma-1 toward the vertical as the injected volume of water increased. We developed a rupture-area magnitude scaling relationship of The Geysers earthquakes obtained from finite-source inversion for fault slip that reveals a very high correlation to published results. Based on the rupture area-magnitude relationship we mapped Mw from the LBNL earthquake catalog to estimate the activated fracture area, its location and orientation within the injection volume of Prati-32. The double-difference Wadati (DDW) technique was applied to high-accuracy P- and S-wave differential travel times derived from waveform cross correlation to image fluid saturation in the subsurface based on Vp/Vs-ratio. The recently developed technique has been applied to estimate temporal changes of fluid distribution in fault zones and in volcanic regions but not yet in engineered geo-reservoirs. The improvement of the technology includes high-resolution waveform cross correlation applied to the high-quality datasets with lower magnitude of completeness resulting in a higher number of recorded events. The improvement allowed to estimate both, the spatial and temporal distribution of injected fluids and the state of the injected fluid during reservoir stimulation. Results of the DDW analysis revealed the development of an injection-derived steam plume during the early injection phase, particularly in the northern part of the Prati-32 study area.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Array Information Technology, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Seismological Lab.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Array Information Technology, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Geothermal Technologies Office (EE-4G)
OSTI Identifier:
1479656
Report Number(s):
DE-EE-0006766
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0006766
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: ftp://ncedc.org/outgoing/dreger/Boyd_etal_2018_SupplementaryTableS1.csvhttp://ncedc.org/ftp/pub/assembled/geysersBBftp://ncedc.org/outgoing/dreger/https://www.ig.cas.cz/en/stress-inverse
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 58 GEOSCIENCES; EGS development; fracture characterization; moment tensor analysis; stress and fluid state and temporal changes

Citation Formats

Gritto, Roland, and Dreger, Douglas. Seismic Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Fracture Generation During EGS Resource Development. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1479656.
Gritto, Roland, & Dreger, Douglas. Seismic Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Fracture Generation During EGS Resource Development. United States. doi:10.2172/1479656.
Gritto, Roland, and Dreger, Douglas. Sun . "Seismic Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Fracture Generation During EGS Resource Development". United States. doi:10.2172/1479656. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1479656.
@article{osti_1479656,
title = {Seismic Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Fracture Generation During EGS Resource Development},
author = {Gritto, Roland and Dreger, Douglas},
abstractNote = {This DOE GTO funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology and the University of California at Berkeley. The project goal is to improve technology to assess in-situ stress magnitude and orientation, kinematic fracture parameters, rupture size, rupture orientation as well as temporal changes and volumetric distribution of the injected fluid during Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resource development. The project leveraged high-frequency seismic data recorded by the LBNL 34-station permanent geophone network and seismic broadband data recorded by a temporary 33-station seismometer network that operated in The Geysers during the injection phase of the DOE GTO funded EGS demonstration project at the well Prati-32. The operation of the broadband network with high station density and good azimuthal coverage to monitor the injection phase produced an unprecedented dataset that is typically unavailable for EGS operations. The two datasets offer the advantages of studying the parameters under investigation over a broader frequency band and the higher sensitivity of the broadband seismometers resulted in a richer dataset with a lower magnitude of completeness. Moment tensor (MT) inversion have been employed to develop a catalog of earthquake source solutions including moment tensor and finite source rupture area. This resulted in a 168-event waveform-based seismic moment tensor catalog for events 0.7≤Mw≤3.9 based on a semi-automated moment tensor analysis technique. The MT solutions were used for in-situ stress estimation during the EGS injection phases. We found an approximate 15-degree counterclockwise rotation of the least compressive stress sigma-3, and a rotation of the maximum compressive stress sigma-1 toward the vertical as the injected volume of water increased. We developed a rupture-area magnitude scaling relationship of The Geysers earthquakes obtained from finite-source inversion for fault slip that reveals a very high correlation to published results. Based on the rupture area-magnitude relationship we mapped Mw from the LBNL earthquake catalog to estimate the activated fracture area, its location and orientation within the injection volume of Prati-32. The double-difference Wadati (DDW) technique was applied to high-accuracy P- and S-wave differential travel times derived from waveform cross correlation to image fluid saturation in the subsurface based on Vp/Vs-ratio. The recently developed technique has been applied to estimate temporal changes of fluid distribution in fault zones and in volcanic regions but not yet in engineered geo-reservoirs. The improvement of the technology includes high-resolution waveform cross correlation applied to the high-quality datasets with lower magnitude of completeness resulting in a higher number of recorded events. The improvement allowed to estimate both, the spatial and temporal distribution of injected fluids and the state of the injected fluid during reservoir stimulation. Results of the DDW analysis revealed the development of an injection-derived steam plume during the early injection phase, particularly in the northern part of the Prati-32 study area.},
doi = {10.2172/1479656},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}