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Title: Enabling Coal Technology with Carbon Capture for Future Markets with Flameless Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (FPO)

Abstract

Future markets for power are expected to require more load following power plants, which reduces output during the night and early morning. This is when the demand for electricity is the lowest, so plants must respond rapidly at any time to peak loads resulting from the variable output of wind and solar power. A coal power plant based on Flameless Pressurized Oxy-combustion (FPO) can go from 5% to 100% of capacity rate in less than 30 minutes in response to fluctuating demand, operating at capacity when power prices are highest. FPO is a proven oxy-combustion technology that was developed to recover energy from low ranking coal, other brown fuels and wastes. ITEA began developing FPO in 2003 on a 5-MWth pilot in Gioia del Colle, Italy, to destroy hazardous industrial waste and as such, design objectives were very high combustion efficiencies and capture of metals in the fuel in the vitreous slag. The technology was subsequently deployed in 2009 at the 15-MWth scale at the Jurong Island petrochemical cluster in Singapore for waste incineration. FPO is an oxy-combustion process whereby oxygen is separated from the air, and it is used in combustion with recirculated flue gas to maintain combustion temperaturesmore » at acceptable levels. The resultant flue gas is primarily CO 2 and water, which allows for a relatively simple and cheap CO 2 capture process. This is in contrast to air-combustion systems which require a complex and costly post-combustion capture (PCC) process. Coal is fed to the combustor slurried in water, and the combustor operates at elevated pressure (approximately 12 bar) which improves the overall efficiency and reduces the size and cost of the combustor. Notably, the FPO cycle maintains high efficiency by recovering most of the heat of vaporisation of the contained water. The combustor is designed to coalesce the molten ash particles so that they settle to the chamber walls and drain to the outlet, significantly reducing the particulate content in the exhaust gas and allowing the use of coals with up to 40% alkaline ash content. FPO is a low-emission technology: zero thermal NOx minimises overall NOx; any organic nitrogen is converted to elemental nitrogen (N2). Total organic content (TOC) at combustor exit is hundreds of times lower than for traditional combustion processes, with dioxin and furans close to zero. Work commenced on a DOE funded pilot demonstration project in October 2016 to provide the design for a 50-MWth FPO pilot plant that can fire a wide range of high-to-low rank coals. The project will investigate updating and improving the cycle for power generation with CO 2 capture by incorporating a turbo-expander with a principal steam power island that utilizes a heat recovery steam generator, increasing the overall efficiency of the cycle. A cost study is also performed on the updated FPO design as part of the project. The FPO pilot plant built based on the design will then be demonstrated over a 3-year test program to generate data for the design of a commercial-scale 500 MWth firing module commercial power plant with integral carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), which could start construction in 2025. A discussion of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of various cases are presented, including a comparison of established supercritical with PCC (SCPC) technologies with FPO fitted with CO 2 compression and liquefaction, and FPO ready for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS-ready). This would enable CO 2 capture for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration when market conditions make it attractive to do so. In addition, a comparison of LCOE of FPO and conventional processes for firing low-ranking coals with high water and ash content will be provided.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Southwest Research Institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1478453
DOE Contract Number:  
FE0027771
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 14th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Melbourne, Australia, 21-25 October 2018
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; flameless oxy-combustion; coal

Citation Formats

Schmitt, Joshua, Malavasi, Massimo, and Reineck, Peter. Enabling Coal Technology with Carbon Capture for Future Markets with Flameless Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (FPO). United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Schmitt, Joshua, Malavasi, Massimo, & Reineck, Peter. Enabling Coal Technology with Carbon Capture for Future Markets with Flameless Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (FPO). United States.
Schmitt, Joshua, Malavasi, Massimo, and Reineck, Peter. Mon . "Enabling Coal Technology with Carbon Capture for Future Markets with Flameless Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (FPO)". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1478453.
@article{osti_1478453,
title = {Enabling Coal Technology with Carbon Capture for Future Markets with Flameless Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (FPO)},
author = {Schmitt, Joshua and Malavasi, Massimo and Reineck, Peter},
abstractNote = {Future markets for power are expected to require more load following power plants, which reduces output during the night and early morning. This is when the demand for electricity is the lowest, so plants must respond rapidly at any time to peak loads resulting from the variable output of wind and solar power. A coal power plant based on Flameless Pressurized Oxy-combustion (FPO) can go from 5% to 100% of capacity rate in less than 30 minutes in response to fluctuating demand, operating at capacity when power prices are highest. FPO is a proven oxy-combustion technology that was developed to recover energy from low ranking coal, other brown fuels and wastes. ITEA began developing FPO in 2003 on a 5-MWth pilot in Gioia del Colle, Italy, to destroy hazardous industrial waste and as such, design objectives were very high combustion efficiencies and capture of metals in the fuel in the vitreous slag. The technology was subsequently deployed in 2009 at the 15-MWth scale at the Jurong Island petrochemical cluster in Singapore for waste incineration. FPO is an oxy-combustion process whereby oxygen is separated from the air, and it is used in combustion with recirculated flue gas to maintain combustion temperatures at acceptable levels. The resultant flue gas is primarily CO2 and water, which allows for a relatively simple and cheap CO2 capture process. This is in contrast to air-combustion systems which require a complex and costly post-combustion capture (PCC) process. Coal is fed to the combustor slurried in water, and the combustor operates at elevated pressure (approximately 12 bar) which improves the overall efficiency and reduces the size and cost of the combustor. Notably, the FPO cycle maintains high efficiency by recovering most of the heat of vaporisation of the contained water. The combustor is designed to coalesce the molten ash particles so that they settle to the chamber walls and drain to the outlet, significantly reducing the particulate content in the exhaust gas and allowing the use of coals with up to 40% alkaline ash content. FPO is a low-emission technology: zero thermal NOx minimises overall NOx; any organic nitrogen is converted to elemental nitrogen (N2). Total organic content (TOC) at combustor exit is hundreds of times lower than for traditional combustion processes, with dioxin and furans close to zero. Work commenced on a DOE funded pilot demonstration project in October 2016 to provide the design for a 50-MWth FPO pilot plant that can fire a wide range of high-to-low rank coals. The project will investigate updating and improving the cycle for power generation with CO2 capture by incorporating a turbo-expander with a principal steam power island that utilizes a heat recovery steam generator, increasing the overall efficiency of the cycle. A cost study is also performed on the updated FPO design as part of the project. The FPO pilot plant built based on the design will then be demonstrated over a 3-year test program to generate data for the design of a commercial-scale 500 MWth firing module commercial power plant with integral carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), which could start construction in 2025. A discussion of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of various cases are presented, including a comparison of established supercritical with PCC (SCPC) technologies with FPO fitted with CO2 compression and liquefaction, and FPO ready for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS-ready). This would enable CO2 capture for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration when market conditions make it attractive to do so. In addition, a comparison of LCOE of FPO and conventional processes for firing low-ranking coals with high water and ash content will be provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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