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Title: Tritium permeability measurement in hydrogen-tritium system

Abstract

Fusion power promises to provide electricity generation with outstanding safety and environmental performance. Safety plays a crucial role in fusion material selection since tritium behavior in materials determines two key safety evaluation source terms: in-vessel inventory source term and ex-vessel release term, which are used in reactor safety assessments for licensing fusion facilities. Tritium permeation through materials at elevated temperature during long pulse operation expected in a burning plasma environment will become a major safety issue and development of tritium permeation barrier materials is required to minimize ex-vessel release to the environment [1]. Extensive work on hydrogen and deuterium behavior in fusion materials has been conducted, but very little database is available for tritium, the radioactive fuel for future reactors, due to the cost and difficulty associated with handling tritium [2]. A majority of the experiments were carried out at high hydrogen/deuterium partial pressure (> 100 Pa), but the expected tritium partial pressure in the blanket system is at low tritium partial pressure (< 100 Pa), where the tritium behavior deviates from diffusion-limited to surface-limited permeation. At these pressures the behavior of tritium is suspected to deviate from diffusion-limited to surface-limited permeation or isotope-limited [3]. The use of tritium enablesmore » us to investigate hydrogen isotope behavior in low partial pressure range with beta radiation detection. The physics of two-component hydrogen (H+T) permeation through metal in the surface-limited regime and through liquid breeding material are still too poorly understood to confidently design environmentally benign and safe fusion systems. In this paper, we discuss development of tritium permeation system for low tritium partial pressure [4], and discuss the results from two-component hydrogen (H+T) permeation in 20 mm disc samples of pure alpha-iron at H2 partial pressure of 100 Pa, wide T2 partial pressure range from 10-12 to 10 Pa, and sample temperature up to 600 °C to uncover the basic scientific understanding of tritium permeation behavior at realistic blanket conditions for DEMO. [1] FESAC report on “Opportunities for Fusion Materials Science and Technology Research Now and During the ITER Era” (2012) DOE/SC-0149 [2] R.A. Causey, R.A. Karnesky, and C. San Marchi, “4.16 Tritium Barriers and Tritium Diffusion in Fusion Reactors”, Comprehensive Nuclear Materials (2012) Chapter 4.16. [3] P. Humrickhouse “Permeation of Tritium and Hydrogen in the Diffusion-Limited and Surface–Limited Regimes”, submitted to Journal of Nuclear Materials. [4] R.J. Pawelko, M. Shimada, K. Katayama, S. Fukada, P.W. Humrickhouse, and T. Terai, “Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic”, Fusion Engineering and Design 102 (2016) 8« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Idaho National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1478246
Report Number(s):
INL/CON-17-41968-Rev000
Journal ID: ISSN 0920-3796
DOE Contract Number:  
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Volume: 129; Conference: Asia-Pacific Symposium On Tritium Sciences, Sandia National Laboratories - Livermore, 09/05/2017 - 09/08/2017
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 - PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; tritium

Citation Formats

Shimada, M., and Pawelko, R.J. Tritium permeability measurement in hydrogen-tritium system. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.02.033.
Shimada, M., & Pawelko, R.J. Tritium permeability measurement in hydrogen-tritium system. United States. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.02.033.
Shimada, M., and Pawelko, R.J. Sun . "Tritium permeability measurement in hydrogen-tritium system". United States. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.02.033. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1478246.
@article{osti_1478246,
title = {Tritium permeability measurement in hydrogen-tritium system},
author = {Shimada, M. and Pawelko, R.J.},
abstractNote = {Fusion power promises to provide electricity generation with outstanding safety and environmental performance. Safety plays a crucial role in fusion material selection since tritium behavior in materials determines two key safety evaluation source terms: in-vessel inventory source term and ex-vessel release term, which are used in reactor safety assessments for licensing fusion facilities. Tritium permeation through materials at elevated temperature during long pulse operation expected in a burning plasma environment will become a major safety issue and development of tritium permeation barrier materials is required to minimize ex-vessel release to the environment [1]. Extensive work on hydrogen and deuterium behavior in fusion materials has been conducted, but very little database is available for tritium, the radioactive fuel for future reactors, due to the cost and difficulty associated with handling tritium [2]. A majority of the experiments were carried out at high hydrogen/deuterium partial pressure (> 100 Pa), but the expected tritium partial pressure in the blanket system is at low tritium partial pressure (< 100 Pa), where the tritium behavior deviates from diffusion-limited to surface-limited permeation. At these pressures the behavior of tritium is suspected to deviate from diffusion-limited to surface-limited permeation or isotope-limited [3]. The use of tritium enables us to investigate hydrogen isotope behavior in low partial pressure range with beta radiation detection. The physics of two-component hydrogen (H+T) permeation through metal in the surface-limited regime and through liquid breeding material are still too poorly understood to confidently design environmentally benign and safe fusion systems. In this paper, we discuss development of tritium permeation system for low tritium partial pressure [4], and discuss the results from two-component hydrogen (H+T) permeation in 20 mm disc samples of pure alpha-iron at H2 partial pressure of 100 Pa, wide T2 partial pressure range from 10-12 to 10 Pa, and sample temperature up to 600 °C to uncover the basic scientific understanding of tritium permeation behavior at realistic blanket conditions for DEMO. [1] FESAC report on “Opportunities for Fusion Materials Science and Technology Research Now and During the ITER Era” (2012) DOE/SC-0149 [2] R.A. Causey, R.A. Karnesky, and C. San Marchi, “4.16 Tritium Barriers and Tritium Diffusion in Fusion Reactors”, Comprehensive Nuclear Materials (2012) Chapter 4.16. [3] P. Humrickhouse “Permeation of Tritium and Hydrogen in the Diffusion-Limited and Surface–Limited Regimes”, submitted to Journal of Nuclear Materials. [4] R.J. Pawelko, M. Shimada, K. Katayama, S. Fukada, P.W. Humrickhouse, and T. Terai, “Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic”, Fusion Engineering and Design 102 (2016) 8},
doi = {10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.02.033},
journal = {},
issn = {0920-3796},
number = ,
volume = 129,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

Conference:
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