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Title: Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Bacteria. Isn’t It Time that We Called a Species a Species?

Abstract

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by a diverse set of seven clostridial species, though alternate naming systems have developed over the last 100 years. Starting in the 1950s, a single-species taxonomy where any bacterium producing BoNT would be designated Clostridium botulinum was introduced. As the extreme diversity of these strains was recognized, a secondary system of taxonomic “groups” evolved. It became clear that these groups also had members that did not produce BoNT, and in some cases, they were given formal species names. Genomic analysis now clearly identifies species affiliations whether an isolate is toxigenic or not. It is clear that C. botulinum group nomenclature is no longer appropriate and that there are recognized species names for each clostridium. We advocate for the use of the scientific binomials and that the single-species group nomenclature be abandoned.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). The Pathogen and Microbiome Inst.
  2. Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). The Pathogen and Microbiome Inst.; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1477671
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-18-27452
Journal ID: ISSN 2150-7511
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
mBio (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: mBio (Online); Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2150-7511
Publisher:
American Society for Microbiology
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Clostridium botulinum; botulism; botulinum neurotoxin; phylogenetic analysis; taxonomy

Citation Formats

Smith, Theresa, Williamson, Charles H. D., Hill, Karen, Sahl, Jason, and Keim, Paul. Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Bacteria. Isn’t It Time that We Called a Species a Species?. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1128/mBio.01469-18.
Smith, Theresa, Williamson, Charles H. D., Hill, Karen, Sahl, Jason, & Keim, Paul. Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Bacteria. Isn’t It Time that We Called a Species a Species?. United States. doi:10.1128/mBio.01469-18.
Smith, Theresa, Williamson, Charles H. D., Hill, Karen, Sahl, Jason, and Keim, Paul. Tue . "Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Bacteria. Isn’t It Time that We Called a Species a Species?". United States. doi:10.1128/mBio.01469-18. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1477671.
@article{osti_1477671,
title = {Botulinum Neurotoxin-Producing Bacteria. Isn’t It Time that We Called a Species a Species?},
author = {Smith, Theresa and Williamson, Charles H. D. and Hill, Karen and Sahl, Jason and Keim, Paul},
abstractNote = {Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by a diverse set of seven clostridial species, though alternate naming systems have developed over the last 100 years. Starting in the 1950s, a single-species taxonomy where any bacterium producing BoNT would be designated Clostridium botulinum was introduced. As the extreme diversity of these strains was recognized, a secondary system of taxonomic “groups” evolved. It became clear that these groups also had members that did not produce BoNT, and in some cases, they were given formal species names. Genomic analysis now clearly identifies species affiliations whether an isolate is toxigenic or not. It is clear that C. botulinum group nomenclature is no longer appropriate and that there are recognized species names for each clostridium. We advocate for the use of the scientific binomials and that the single-species group nomenclature be abandoned.},
doi = {10.1128/mBio.01469-18},
journal = {mBio (Online)},
number = 5,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 25 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Tue Sep 25 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput
journal, March 2004

  • Edgar, R. C.
  • Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 32, Issue 5, p. 1792-1797
  • DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkh340