skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Involvement of PACLOBUTRAZOL RESISTANCE6/KIDARI, an Atypical bHLH Transcription Factor, in Auxin Responses in Arabidopsis

Abstract

Auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development including cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation, which are achieved largely by rapid regulation of auxin response genes. However, the functions of a large number of auxin response genes remain uncharacterized. Paclobutrazol Resistance (PRE) proteins are non-DNA binding basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that have been shown to be involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling, and light responses in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide molecular and genetic evidence that PRE6, one of the six PRE genes in Arabidopsis, is an auxin response gene, and that PRE6 is involved in the regulation of auxin signaling. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that the expression level of PRE6 was increased in response to exogenously applied IAA. GUS staining results also showed that the expression of GUS reporter gene in the PRE6p:GUS transgenic seedlings was elevated in response to auxin. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of PRE6 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including elongated hypocotyl and primary roots, and reduced number of lateral roots when compared with the Col wild type seedlings, whereas opposite phenotypes were observed in the pre6 mutants. Further analysis showed that PRE6 overexpression plants were hyposensitive, whereas pre6 mutantsmore » were hypersensitive to auxin in root and hypocotyl elongation and lateral root formation assays. By using protoplasts transfection, we showed that PRE6 functions as a transcriptional repressor. Consistent with this, the expression of the auxin response reporter DR5:GUS was decreased in PRE6 overexpression lines, but increased in pre6 mutants. When co-transfected into protoplasts, ARF5 and ARF8 activated the expression of the PRE6p:GUS reporter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that ARF5 and ARF8 can be recruited to the promoter regions of PRE6. Taken together, these results suggest that PRE6 is an auxin response gene whose expression is directly regulated by ARF5 and ARF8, and that PRE6 is a transcriptional repressor that negatively regulates auxin responses in Arabidopsis.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. Northeast Normal Univ., Changchun (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Changchun (China)
  2. Northeast Normal Univ., Changchun (China)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1476426
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Plant Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: n/a; Journal ID: ISSN 1664-462X
Publisher:
Frontiers Research Foundation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Zheng, Kaijie, Wang, Yating, Zhang, Na, Jia, Qiming, Wang, Xutong, Hou, Chunjiang, Chen, Jin-Gui, and Wang, Shucai. Involvement of PACLOBUTRAZOL RESISTANCE6/KIDARI, an Atypical bHLH Transcription Factor, in Auxin Responses in Arabidopsis. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.01813.
Zheng, Kaijie, Wang, Yating, Zhang, Na, Jia, Qiming, Wang, Xutong, Hou, Chunjiang, Chen, Jin-Gui, & Wang, Shucai. Involvement of PACLOBUTRAZOL RESISTANCE6/KIDARI, an Atypical bHLH Transcription Factor, in Auxin Responses in Arabidopsis. United States. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.01813.
Zheng, Kaijie, Wang, Yating, Zhang, Na, Jia, Qiming, Wang, Xutong, Hou, Chunjiang, Chen, Jin-Gui, and Wang, Shucai. Tue . "Involvement of PACLOBUTRAZOL RESISTANCE6/KIDARI, an Atypical bHLH Transcription Factor, in Auxin Responses in Arabidopsis". United States. doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.01813. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1476426.
@article{osti_1476426,
title = {Involvement of PACLOBUTRAZOL RESISTANCE6/KIDARI, an Atypical bHLH Transcription Factor, in Auxin Responses in Arabidopsis},
author = {Zheng, Kaijie and Wang, Yating and Zhang, Na and Jia, Qiming and Wang, Xutong and Hou, Chunjiang and Chen, Jin-Gui and Wang, Shucai},
abstractNote = {Auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development including cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation, which are achieved largely by rapid regulation of auxin response genes. However, the functions of a large number of auxin response genes remain uncharacterized. Paclobutrazol Resistance (PRE) proteins are non-DNA binding basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that have been shown to be involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling, and light responses in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide molecular and genetic evidence that PRE6, one of the six PRE genes in Arabidopsis, is an auxin response gene, and that PRE6 is involved in the regulation of auxin signaling. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that the expression level of PRE6 was increased in response to exogenously applied IAA. GUS staining results also showed that the expression of GUS reporter gene in the PRE6p:GUS transgenic seedlings was elevated in response to auxin. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of PRE6 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including elongated hypocotyl and primary roots, and reduced number of lateral roots when compared with the Col wild type seedlings, whereas opposite phenotypes were observed in the pre6 mutants. Further analysis showed that PRE6 overexpression plants were hyposensitive, whereas pre6 mutants were hypersensitive to auxin in root and hypocotyl elongation and lateral root formation assays. By using protoplasts transfection, we showed that PRE6 functions as a transcriptional repressor. Consistent with this, the expression of the auxin response reporter DR5:GUS was decreased in PRE6 overexpression lines, but increased in pre6 mutants. When co-transfected into protoplasts, ARF5 and ARF8 activated the expression of the PRE6p:GUS reporter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that ARF5 and ARF8 can be recruited to the promoter regions of PRE6. Taken together, these results suggest that PRE6 is an auxin response gene whose expression is directly regulated by ARF5 and ARF8, and that PRE6 is a transcriptional repressor that negatively regulates auxin responses in Arabidopsis.},
doi = {10.3389/fpls.2017.01813},
journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
issn = {1664-462X},
number = n/a,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

ATBS1 INTERACTING FACTORs negatively regulate Arabidopsis cell elongation in the triantagonistic bHLH system
journal, March 2013

  • Ikeda, Miho; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru
  • Plant Signaling & Behavior, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4161/psb.23448

Plant Development Is Regulated by a Family of Auxin Receptor F Box Proteins
journal, July 2005


Composite structure of auxin response elements.
journal, October 1995


The small, versatilepPZP family ofAgrobacterium binary vectors for plant transformation
journal, September 1994

  • Hajdukiewicz, Peter; Svab, Zora; Maliga, Pal
  • Plant Molecular Biology, Vol. 25, Issue 6, p. 989-994
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00014672

Transcriptional Responses to the Auxin Hormone
journal, April 2016


The Systems Biology of Auxin in Developing Embryos
journal, March 2017


Overexpression of PRE1 and its Homologous Genes Activates Gibberellin-dependent Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana
journal, May 2006

  • Lee, Sumin; Lee, Seunghee; Yang, Ki-Young
  • Plant and Cell Physiology, Vol. 47, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcj026

Auxin response factors: Auxin response factors
journal, January 2016

  • Chandler, John William
  • Plant, Cell & Environment, Vol. 39, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1111/pce.12662

A competitive peptide inhibitor KIDARI negatively regulates HFR1 by forming nonfunctional heterodimers in Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis
journal, December 2012


Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis
journal, December 2012

  • Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng
  • Plant Signaling & Behavior, Vol. 7, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.4161/psb.22404

The Arabidopsis Floral Homeotic Proteins APETALA3 and PISTILLATA Negatively Regulate the BANQUO Genes Implicated in Light Signaling
journal, March 2010

  • Mara, Chloe D.; Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F.
  • The Plant Cell, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.065946

Molecular Profiles of Contrasting Shade Response Strategies in Wild Plants: Differential Control of Immunity and Shoot Elongation
journal, January 2017

  • Gommers, Charlotte M. M.; Keuskamp, Diederik H.; Buti, Sara
  • The Plant Cell, Vol. 29, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1105/tpc.16.00790

An ABA down-regulated bHLH transcription repressor gene, bHLH129 regulates root elongation and ABA response when overexpressed in Arabidopsis
journal, December 2015

  • Tian, Hainan; Guo, Hongyan; Dai, Xuemei
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep17587

ARF1, a Transcription Factor That Binds to Auxin Response Elements
journal, June 1997


Complex regulation of the TIR1/AFB family of auxin receptors
journal, December 2009

  • Parry, G.; Calderon-Villalobos, L. I.; Prigge, M.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0911967106

The IBR5 phosphatase promotes Arabidopsis auxin responses through a novel mechanism distinct from TIR1-mediated repressor degradation
journal, January 2008

  • Strader, Lucia C.; Monroe-Augustus, Melanie; Bartel, Bonnie
  • BMC Plant Biology, Vol. 8, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-41

Regulation of Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Signaling by Atypical Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins
journal, December 2009


Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes are involved in brassinosteroid-mediated growth responses in a manner dependent on organ type
journal, January 2006


A Triantagonistic Basic Helix-Loop-Helix System Regulates Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis
journal, November 2012

  • Ikeda, Miho; Fujiwara, Sumire; Mitsuda, Nobutaka
  • The Plant Cell, Vol. 24, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1105/tpc.112.105023

Update on the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Gene Family in Arabidopsis thaliana
journal, November 2003

  • Bailey, Paul C.; Martin, Cathie; Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela
  • The Plant Cell, Vol. 15, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1105/tpc.151140

The Arabidopsis F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor
journal, May 2005


MONOPTEROS controls embryonic root initiation by regulating a mobile transcription factor
journal, March 2010

  • Schlereth, Alexandra; Möller, Barbara; Liu, Weilin
  • Nature, Vol. 464, Issue 7290
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08836

The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor
journal, May 2005

  • Dharmasiri, Nihal; Dharmasiri, Sunethra; Estelle, Mark
  • Nature, Vol. 435, Issue 7041
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature03543

Auxin in action: signalling, transport and the control of plant growth and development
journal, September 2006

  • Teale, William D.; Paponov, Ivan A.; Palme, Klaus
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, Vol. 7, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nrm2020

The Roles of Auxin Response Factor Domains in Auxin-Responsive Transcription
journal, January 2003

  • Tiwari, Shiv B.; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Tom
  • The Plant Cell, Vol. 15, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1105/tpc.008417

Auxin Receptors and Plant Development: A New Signaling Paradigm
journal, November 2008


Aux/IAA proteins repress expression of reporter genes containing natural and highly active synthetic auxin response elements.
journal, November 1997


Interactions between HLH and bHLH Factors Modulate Light-Regulated Plant Development
journal, May 2012

  • Hao, Yaqi; Oh, Eunkyoo; Choi, Giltsu
  • Molecular Plant, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mp/sss011

Ectopic expression of R3 MYB transcription factor gene OsTCL1 in Arabidopsis, but not rice, affects trichome and root hair formation
journal, January 2016

  • Zheng, Kaijie; Tian, Hainan; Hu, Qingnan
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep19254

Auxin response factors
journal, October 2007


Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis
journal, June 2015


Lateral root formation is blocked by a gain-of-function mutation in the SOLITARY-ROOT/IAA14 gene of Arabidopsis
journal, January 2002


Mechanism of Auxin-Regulated Gene Expression in Plants
journal, December 2009


Dimerization and DNA binding of auxin response factors
journal, August 1999


Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana
journal, December 1998


AUX/IAA Proteins Are Active Repressors, and Their Stability and Activity Are Modulated by Auxin
journal, December 2001

  • Tiwari, Shiv B.; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Hagen, Gretchen
  • The Plant Cell, Vol. 13, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1105/tpc.010289

A Modular Analysis of the Auxin Signalling Network
journal, March 2015


Auxin response factors ARF6 and ARF8 promote jasmonic acid production and flower maturation
journal, August 2005


The auxin signalling network translates dynamic input into robust patterning at the shoot apex
journal, January 2011

  • Vernoux, Teva; Brunoud, Géraldine; Farcot, Etienne
  • Molecular Systems Biology, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/msb.2011.39

Molecular Links Between Light and Auxin Signaling Pathways
journal, September 2001

  • Tian, Qing; Reed, Jason W.
  • Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s003440010022

Aux/IAA Proteins Contain a Potent Transcriptional Repression Domain
journal, January 2004

  • Tiwari, Shiv B.; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Tom J.
  • The Plant Cell, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1105/tpc.017384

AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7 Restores the Expression of Auxin-Responsive Genes in Mutant Arabidopsis Leaf Mesophyll Protoplasts
journal, May 2005


Integration of Light and Auxin Signaling
journal, November 2009

  • Halliday, K. J.; Martinez-Garcia, J. F.; Josse, E. -M.
  • Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, Vol. 1, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a001586

Shedding light on auxin movement: Light-regulation of polar auxin transport in the photocontrol of plant development
journal, March 2013

  • Sassi, Massimiliano; Ruberti, Ida; Vernoux, Teva
  • Plant Signaling & Behavior, Vol. 8, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.4161/psb.23355

Characterization of an activation-tagged mutant uncovers a role of GLABRA2 in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
journal, June 2015

  • Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xianling; Hu, Qingnan
  • The Plant Journal, Vol. 83, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/tpj.12887

The non-DNA-binding bHLH transcription factor PRE3/bHLH135/ATBS1/TMO7 is involved in the regulation of light signaling pathway in Arabidopsis
journal, April 2012


KIDARI, Encoding a Non-DNA Binding bHLH Protein, Represses Light Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana
journal, May 2006