skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A modular synthetic approach for band-gap engineering of armchair graphene nanoribbons

Abstract

Despite the great promise of armchair graphene nanoribbons (aGNRs) as high-performance semiconductors, practical band-gap engineering of aGNRs remains an unmet challenge. Given that width and edge structures are the two key factors for modulating band-gaps of aGNRs, a reliable synthetic method that allows control of both factors would be highly desirable. We report a simple modular strategy for efficient preparation of N = 6 aGNR, the narrowest member in the N = 3p (p: natural number) aGNR family, and two unsymmetrically edge-functionalized GNRs that contain benzothiadiazole and benzotriazole moieties. The trend of band-gap transitions among these GNRs parallels those in donor-acceptor alternating conjugated polymers. In addition, post-functionalization of the unsymmetrical heterocyclic edge via C-H borylation permits further band-gap tuning. Therefore, this method opens the door for convenient band-gap engineering of aGNRs through modifying the heteroarenes on the edge.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); National Science Foundation (NSF); Welch Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1474402
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; CHE 1707399; F 1781; DMR 1420634; DMR-1420709
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Li, Gang, Yoon, Ki-Young, Zhong, Xinjue, Wang, Jianchun, Zhang, Rui, Guest, Jeffrey R., Wen, Jianguo, Zhu, X. -Y., and Dong, Guangbin. A modular synthetic approach for band-gap engineering of armchair graphene nanoribbons. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03747-2.
Li, Gang, Yoon, Ki-Young, Zhong, Xinjue, Wang, Jianchun, Zhang, Rui, Guest, Jeffrey R., Wen, Jianguo, Zhu, X. -Y., & Dong, Guangbin. A modular synthetic approach for band-gap engineering of armchair graphene nanoribbons. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03747-2.
Li, Gang, Yoon, Ki-Young, Zhong, Xinjue, Wang, Jianchun, Zhang, Rui, Guest, Jeffrey R., Wen, Jianguo, Zhu, X. -Y., and Dong, Guangbin. Fri . "A modular synthetic approach for band-gap engineering of armchair graphene nanoribbons". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03747-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1474402.
@article{osti_1474402,
title = {A modular synthetic approach for band-gap engineering of armchair graphene nanoribbons},
author = {Li, Gang and Yoon, Ki-Young and Zhong, Xinjue and Wang, Jianchun and Zhang, Rui and Guest, Jeffrey R. and Wen, Jianguo and Zhu, X. -Y. and Dong, Guangbin},
abstractNote = {Despite the great promise of armchair graphene nanoribbons (aGNRs) as high-performance semiconductors, practical band-gap engineering of aGNRs remains an unmet challenge. Given that width and edge structures are the two key factors for modulating band-gaps of aGNRs, a reliable synthetic method that allows control of both factors would be highly desirable. We report a simple modular strategy for efficient preparation of N = 6 aGNR, the narrowest member in the N = 3p (p: natural number) aGNR family, and two unsymmetrically edge-functionalized GNRs that contain benzothiadiazole and benzotriazole moieties. The trend of band-gap transitions among these GNRs parallels those in donor-acceptor alternating conjugated polymers. In addition, post-functionalization of the unsymmetrical heterocyclic edge via C-H borylation permits further band-gap tuning. Therefore, this method opens the door for convenient band-gap engineering of aGNRs through modifying the heteroarenes on the edge.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-03747-2},
journal = {Nature Communications},
issn = {2041-1723},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 9 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Bottom-Up Synthesis of Soluble and Narrow Graphene Nanoribbons Using Alkyne Benzannulations
journal, July 2016

  • Yang, Wenlong; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b03014

Analysis of graphene nanoribbons as a channel material for field-effect transistors
journal, April 2006

  • Obradovic, B.; Kotlyar, R.; Heinz, F.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2191420

New advances in nanographene chemistry
journal, January 2015

  • Narita, Akimitsu; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Feng, Xinliang
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 44, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CS00183H

Efficient Bottom-Up Preparation of Graphene Nanoribbons by Mild Suzuki-Miyaura Polymerization of Simple Triaryl Monomers
journal, May 2016

  • Li, Gang; Yoon, Ki-Young; Zhong, Xinjue
  • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 22, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201602007

Benzotriazole containing conjugated polymers for multipurpose organic electronic applications
journal, January 2011

  • Balan, Abidin; Baran, Derya; Toppare, Levent
  • Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 2, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c1py00007a

Structurally uniform and atomically precise carbon nanostructures
journal, January 2016


Polaron Properties in Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, February 2016

  • da Cunha, Wiliam F.; Acioli, Paulo H.; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro H.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 120, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b12491

It Takes More Than an Imine: The Role of the Central Atom on the Electron-Accepting Ability of Benzotriazole and Benzothiadiazole Oligomers
journal, January 2012

  • Patel, Dinesh G. (Dan); Feng, Fude; Ohnishi, Yu-ya
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja207978v

Two-Dimensional Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, April 2008

  • Yang, Xiaoyin; Dou, Xi; Rouhanipour, Ali
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 130, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja710234t

Graphene Chemistry: Synthesis and Manipulation
journal, September 2011

  • Sun, Zhengzong; James, Dustin K.; Tour, James M.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 2, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1021/jz201000a

Tuning the Band Gap of Graphene Nanoribbons Synthesized from Molecular Precursors
journal, June 2013

  • Chen, Yen-Chia; de Oteyza, Dimas G.; Pedramrazi, Zahra
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 7, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn401948e

On-Surface Synthesis of Rylene-Type Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, March 2015

  • Zhang, Haiming; Lin, Haiping; Sun, Kewei
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja511995r

Ultra-narrow metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons
journal, December 2015

  • Kimouche, Amina; Ervasti, Mikko M.; Drost, Robert
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10177

Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors
journal, February 2008


Borylated Arylamine–Benzothiadiazole Donor–Acceptor Materials as Low-LUMO, Low-Band-Gap Chromophores
journal, April 2017


Vibrational property and Raman spectrum of carbon nanoribbon
journal, October 2007

  • Zhou, Jian; Dong, Jinming
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2800796

Molecular bandgap engineering of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions
journal, January 2015


Optical Bandgaps of π-Conjugated Organic Materials at the Polymer Limit: Experiment and Theory
journal, January 2007

  • Gierschner, J.; Cornil, J.; Egelhaaf, H. -J.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600277

Poly(ethylene oxide) Functionalized Graphene Nanoribbons with Excellent Solution Processability
journal, August 2016

  • Huang, Yinjuan; Mai, Yiyong; Beser, Uliana
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b07061

Bottom-Up Synthesis of Chemically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons: Bottom-Up Synthesis of Chemically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, November 2014

  • Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus
  • The Chemical Record, Vol. 15, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201402082

Width-Controlled Sub-Nanometer Graphene Nanoribbon Films Synthesized by Radical-Polymerized Chemical Vapor Deposition
journal, April 2014

  • Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Kawagoe, Yoshiyasu; Hirano, Yoshitaka
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305034

Raman spectroscopy in graphene
journal, April 2009


Inverse relationship between carrier mobility and bandgap in graphene
journal, February 2013

  • Wang, Jinying; Zhao, Ruiqi; Yang, Mingmei
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 138, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4792142

Energy Gaps in Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, November 2006


Graphene nanoribbon blends with P3HT for organic electronics
journal, January 2014

  • El Gemayel, Mirella; Narita, Akimitsu; Dössel, Lukas F.
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 6, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4NR00256C

Rylene Ribbons with Unusual Diradical Character
journal, January 2017


Helically Coiled Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, March 2017

  • Daigle, Maxime; Miao, Dandan; Lucotti, Andrea
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 56, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201611834

Synthesis of structurally well-defined and liquid-phase-processable graphene nanoribbons
journal, December 2013

  • Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Hernandez, Yenny
  • Nature Chemistry, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1819

Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, May 2016


Enhancing electron affinity and tuning band gap in donor–acceptor organic semiconductors by benzothiadiazole directed C–H borylation
journal, January 2015

  • Crossley, D. L.; Cade, I. A.; Clark, E. R.
  • Chemical Science, Vol. 6, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5SC01800E

Armchair graphene nanoribbons: Electronic structure and electric-field modulation
journal, June 2008


Atomically precise bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanoribbons
journal, July 2010

  • Cai, Jinming; Ruffieux, Pascal; Jaafar, Rached
  • Nature, Vol. 466, Issue 7305
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09211

Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons
journal, April 2009

  • Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Higginbotham, Amanda L.; Sinitskii, Alexander
  • Nature, Vol. 458, Issue 7240
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature07872

Charge-Transport Tuning of Solution-Processable Graphene Nanoribbons by Substitutional Nitrogen Doping
journal, September 2013

  • Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Jong Won; Jo, Won Ho
  • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 214, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/macp.201300529

Low Temperature Raman Study of the Electron Coherence Length near Graphene Edges
journal, March 2011

  • Beams, Ryan; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Novotny, Lukas
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 11, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl104134a

Graphene Nanoribbons by Chemists: Nanometer-Sized, Soluble, and Defect-Free
journal, January 2011

  • Dössel, Lukas; Gherghel, Lileta; Feng, Xinliang
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006593

Cyclic aryleneazachalcogens: Synthesis, vibrational spectra, and ?-electron structures
journal, August 1990

  • Zibarev, A. V.; Fugaeva, O. M.; Miller, A. O.
  • Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Vol. 26, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00480877

Graphene nano-ribbon electronics
journal, December 2007

  • Chen, Zhihong; Lin, Yu-Ming; Rooks, Michael J.
  • Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, Vol. 40, Issue 2, p. 228-232
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.physe.2007.06.020

Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes
journal, April 2009


Understanding the regioselectivity in Scholl reactions for the synthesis of oligoarenes
journal, January 2012

  • Danz, Michael; Tonner, Ralf; Hilt, Gerhard
  • Chem. Commun., Vol. 48, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/C1CC15980A

Symmetry properties of vibrational modes in graphene nanoribbons
journal, May 2010


Highly Twisted Arenes by Scholl Cyclizations with Unexpected Regioselectivity
journal, November 2011

  • Pradhan, Anirban; Dechambenoit, Pierre; Bock, Harald
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201105105

On the “selenation” method of assignment of organic sulphur compounds vibrational spectra
journal, March 1990


Large-scale solution synthesis of narrow graphene nanoribbons
journal, February 2014

  • Vo, Timothy H.; Shekhirev, Mikhail; Kunkel, Donna A.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4189

Helically Coiled Graphene Nanoribbons
journal, March 2017

  • Daigle, Maxime; Miao, Dandan; Lucotti, Andrea
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 129, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201611834

Highly Twisted Arenes by Scholl Cyclizations with Unexpected Regioselectivity
journal, November 2011

  • Pradhan, Anirban; Dechambenoit, Pierre; Bock, Harald
  • Angewandte Chemie, Vol. 123, Issue 52
  • DOI: 10.1002/ange.201105105

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Optical Bandgaps of π-Conjugated Organic Materials at the Polymer Limit: Experiment and Theory
    journal, January 2007

    • Gierschner, J.; Cornil, J.; Egelhaaf, H. -J.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200600277

    Width-Controlled Sub-Nanometer Graphene Nanoribbon Films Synthesized by Radical-Polymerized Chemical Vapor Deposition
    journal, April 2014

    • Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Kawagoe, Yoshiyasu; Hirano, Yoshitaka
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201305034

    Graphene Nanoribbons by Chemists: Nanometer-Sized, Soluble, and Defect-Free
    journal, January 2011

    • Dössel, Lukas; Gherghel, Lileta; Feng, Xinliang
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006593

    Highly Twisted Arenes by Scholl Cyclizations with Unexpected Regioselectivity
    journal, November 2011

    • Pradhan, Anirban; Dechambenoit, Pierre; Bock, Harald
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 50, Issue 52
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201105105

    Helically Coiled Graphene Nanoribbons
    journal, March 2017

    • Daigle, Maxime; Miao, Dandan; Lucotti, Andrea
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 56, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201611834

    Efficient Bottom-Up Preparation of Graphene Nanoribbons by Mild Suzuki-Miyaura Polymerization of Simple Triaryl Monomers
    journal, May 2016

    • Li, Gang; Yoon, Ki-Young; Zhong, Xinjue
    • Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 22, Issue 27
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201602007

    Charge-Transport Tuning of Solution-Processable Graphene Nanoribbons by Substitutional Nitrogen Doping
    journal, September 2013

    • Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Jong Won; Jo, Won Ho
    • Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 214, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1002/macp.201300529

    Bottom-Up Synthesis of Chemically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons: Bottom-Up Synthesis of Chemically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons
    journal, November 2014

    • Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus
    • The Chemical Record, Vol. 15, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201402082

    Cyclic aryleneazachalcogens: Synthesis, vibrational spectra, and ?-electron structures
    journal, August 1990

    • Zibarev, A. V.; Fugaeva, O. M.; Miller, A. O.
    • Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Vol. 26, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf00480877

    On the “selenation” method of assignment of organic sulphur compounds vibrational spectra
    journal, March 1990


    Rylene Ribbons with Unusual Diradical Character
    journal, January 2017


    Graphene nano-ribbon electronics
    journal, December 2007

    • Chen, Zhihong; Lin, Yu-Ming; Rooks, Michael J.
    • Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, Vol. 40, Issue 2, p. 228-232
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.physe.2007.06.020

    Raman spectroscopy in graphene
    journal, April 2009


    Polaron Properties in Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons
    journal, February 2016

    • da Cunha, Wiliam F.; Acioli, Paulo H.; de Oliveira Neto, Pedro H.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Vol. 120, Issue 27
    • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b12491

    Raman Fingerprints of Atomically Precise Graphene Nanoribbons
    journal, May 2016


    Borylated Arylamine–Benzothiadiazole Donor–Acceptor Materials as Low-LUMO, Low-Band-Gap Chromophores
    journal, April 2017


    It Takes More Than an Imine: The Role of the Central Atom on the Electron-Accepting Ability of Benzotriazole and Benzothiadiazole Oligomers
    journal, January 2012

    • Patel, Dinesh G. (Dan); Feng, Fude; Ohnishi, Yu-ya
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 134, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja207978v

    On-Surface Synthesis of Rylene-Type Graphene Nanoribbons
    journal, March 2015

    • Zhang, Haiming; Lin, Haiping; Sun, Kewei
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 137, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja511995r

    Two-Dimensional Graphene Nanoribbons
    journal, April 2008

    • Yang, Xiaoyin; Dou, Xi; Rouhanipour, Ali
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 130, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1021/ja710234t

    Bottom-Up Synthesis of Soluble and Narrow Graphene Nanoribbons Using Alkyne Benzannulations
    journal, July 2016

    • Yang, Wenlong; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b03014

    Poly(ethylene oxide) Functionalized Graphene Nanoribbons with Excellent Solution Processability
    journal, August 2016

    • Huang, Yinjuan; Mai, Yiyong; Beser, Uliana
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 138, Issue 32
    • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b07061

    Graphene Chemistry: Synthesis and Manipulation
    journal, September 2011

    • Sun, Zhengzong; James, Dustin K.; Tour, James M.
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 2, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1021/jz201000a

    Low Temperature Raman Study of the Electron Coherence Length near Graphene Edges
    journal, March 2011

    • Beams, Ryan; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Novotny, Lukas
    • Nano Letters, Vol. 11, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1021/nl104134a

    Tuning the Band Gap of Graphene Nanoribbons Synthesized from Molecular Precursors
    journal, June 2013

    • Chen, Yen-Chia; de Oteyza, Dimas G.; Pedramrazi, Zahra
    • ACS Nano, Vol. 7, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1021/nn401948e

    Structurally uniform and atomically precise carbon nanostructures
    journal, January 2016


    Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons
    journal, April 2009

    • Kosynkin, Dmitry V.; Higginbotham, Amanda L.; Sinitskii, Alexander
    • Nature, Vol. 458, Issue 7240
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature07872

    Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes
    journal, April 2009


    Atomically precise bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanoribbons
    journal, July 2010

    • Cai, Jinming; Ruffieux, Pascal; Jaafar, Rached
    • Nature, Vol. 466, Issue 7305
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature09211

    Synthesis of structurally well-defined and liquid-phase-processable graphene nanoribbons
    journal, December 2013

    • Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Hernandez, Yenny
    • Nature Chemistry, Vol. 6, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1038/nchem.1819

    Ultra-narrow metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons
    journal, December 2015

    • Kimouche, Amina; Ervasti, Mikko M.; Drost, Robert
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10177

    Large-scale solution synthesis of narrow graphene nanoribbons
    journal, February 2014

    • Vo, Timothy H.; Shekhirev, Mikhail; Kunkel, Donna A.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4189

    Molecular bandgap engineering of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions
    journal, January 2015


    Understanding the regioselectivity in Scholl reactions for the synthesis of oligoarenes
    journal, January 2012

    • Danz, Michael; Tonner, Ralf; Hilt, Gerhard
    • Chem. Commun., Vol. 48, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1039/c1cc15980a

    Benzotriazole containing conjugated polymers for multipurpose organic electronic applications
    journal, January 2011

    • Balan, Abidin; Baran, Derya; Toppare, Levent
    • Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 2, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1039/c1py00007a

    Graphene nanoribbon blends with P3HT for organic electronics
    journal, January 2014

    • El Gemayel, Mirella; Narita, Akimitsu; Dössel, Lukas F.
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 6, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00256c

    New advances in nanographene chemistry
    journal, January 2015

    • Narita, Akimitsu; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Feng, Xinliang
    • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 44, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1039/c5cs00183h

    Enhancing electron affinity and tuning band gap in donor–acceptor organic semiconductors by benzothiadiazole directed C–H borylation
    journal, January 2015

    • Crossley, D. L.; Cade, I. A.; Clark, E. R.
    • Chemical Science, Vol. 6, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01800e

    Analysis of graphene nanoribbons as a channel material for field-effect transistors
    journal, April 2006

    • Obradovic, B.; Kotlyar, R.; Heinz, F.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2191420

    Vibrational property and Raman spectrum of carbon nanoribbon
    journal, October 2007

    • Zhou, Jian; Dong, Jinming
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2800796

    Inverse relationship between carrier mobility and bandgap in graphene
    journal, February 2013

    • Wang, Jinying; Zhao, Ruiqi; Yang, Mingmei
    • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 138, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4792142

    Armchair graphene nanoribbons: Electronic structure and electric-field modulation
    journal, June 2008


    Symmetry properties of vibrational modes in graphene nanoribbons
    journal, May 2010


    Energy Gaps in Graphene Nanoribbons
    journal, November 2006


    Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors
    journal, February 2008