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Title: Low-GWP HVAC System with Ultra-small Centrifugal Compression

Abstract

Mechanical Solutions, Incorporated (MSI) was awarded a contract from the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-EE0007042 to advance the potential of vapor compression utilizing an advanced high speed centrifugal compressor with an advanced heat exchanger design. The design was mandated to maintain high efficiency while utilizing a low GWP refrigerant. The specific goal of this program was to develop an advanced 5 ton air conditioning system. The target of the air conditioner is residential and commercial. To accomplish these goals, MSI teamed with Lennox International, a leading air conditioning manufacturer. MSI would design, oversee manufacturing, assemble, and test the compressor, while Lennox designed the heat exchanger and tested the overall air conditioner. Lennox initiated the project with a detailed cycle analysis that examined systems and refrigerants. At various break points, MSI performed a preliminary compressor design to identify realizable targets. Initially, the refrigerant that was targeted was R1234ze(E), but this was subsequently rejected over concerns of flammability. R515a was ultimately accepted as a qualified fluid based upon its GWP and flammability rating. MSI performed a complete design of the centrifugal compressor based upon the cycle system design and analysis. The design was based upon advanced aerodynamics utilizing transientmore » Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), as well as mechanical and rotordynamic analysis. A detailed materials investigation was conducted to ensure mechanical integrity and refrigerant compatibility. To achieve the high rotational speed required by the compressor (105,300 rpm), foil bearings were designed by MSI, as was a high speed motor to provide the required torque for the compressor. All elements of the design complied with Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. The compressor was manufactured in components, utilizing specializing subcontractors throughout the country. The components were assembled into an operational compressor in MSI’s Albany facility, where it was tested in the MSI refrigeration test loop. The compressor achieved 90% of its maximum speed during testing at MSI. The interaction between the inverter and the high speed motor was the reason that full speed could not be attained. The compressor operated smoothly and quietly at all speeds, with the bearings performing as expected. The compressor was then shipped to Lennox’s facilities in Texas, where it was tested in the entire air conditioning system. Lennox was able to achieve 95% of the maximum rotational speed. They employed the same inverter as MSI. Lennox compiled the results of the testing and based upon the results, a go forward plan has been developed to correct the issues with the inverter, as well as redesign some parts that proved to be a challenge during the program. The consensus of the team is that a fully functional air conditioning system can be developed to achieve all of the goals identified in this program.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Mechanical Solutions, Inc., Whippany, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Mechanical Solutions, Inc., Whippany, NJ (United States); Lennox International Inc., Richardson, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B)
OSTI Identifier:
1474314
Report Number(s):
MSI TR-9850-Final Report
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0007042
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 42 ENGINEERING; High-Speed; Compressor; Centrifugal Compressor; refrigerant; HVAC; Low-GWP

Citation Formats

Bennett, Edward. Low-GWP HVAC System with Ultra-small Centrifugal Compression. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1474314.
Bennett, Edward. Low-GWP HVAC System with Ultra-small Centrifugal Compression. United States. doi:10.2172/1474314.
Bennett, Edward. Mon . "Low-GWP HVAC System with Ultra-small Centrifugal Compression". United States. doi:10.2172/1474314. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1474314.
@article{osti_1474314,
title = {Low-GWP HVAC System with Ultra-small Centrifugal Compression},
author = {Bennett, Edward},
abstractNote = {Mechanical Solutions, Incorporated (MSI) was awarded a contract from the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-EE0007042 to advance the potential of vapor compression utilizing an advanced high speed centrifugal compressor with an advanced heat exchanger design. The design was mandated to maintain high efficiency while utilizing a low GWP refrigerant. The specific goal of this program was to develop an advanced 5 ton air conditioning system. The target of the air conditioner is residential and commercial. To accomplish these goals, MSI teamed with Lennox International, a leading air conditioning manufacturer. MSI would design, oversee manufacturing, assemble, and test the compressor, while Lennox designed the heat exchanger and tested the overall air conditioner. Lennox initiated the project with a detailed cycle analysis that examined systems and refrigerants. At various break points, MSI performed a preliminary compressor design to identify realizable targets. Initially, the refrigerant that was targeted was R1234ze(E), but this was subsequently rejected over concerns of flammability. R515a was ultimately accepted as a qualified fluid based upon its GWP and flammability rating. MSI performed a complete design of the centrifugal compressor based upon the cycle system design and analysis. The design was based upon advanced aerodynamics utilizing transient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), as well as mechanical and rotordynamic analysis. A detailed materials investigation was conducted to ensure mechanical integrity and refrigerant compatibility. To achieve the high rotational speed required by the compressor (105,300 rpm), foil bearings were designed by MSI, as was a high speed motor to provide the required torque for the compressor. All elements of the design complied with Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. The compressor was manufactured in components, utilizing specializing subcontractors throughout the country. The components were assembled into an operational compressor in MSI’s Albany facility, where it was tested in the MSI refrigeration test loop. The compressor achieved 90% of its maximum speed during testing at MSI. The interaction between the inverter and the high speed motor was the reason that full speed could not be attained. The compressor operated smoothly and quietly at all speeds, with the bearings performing as expected. The compressor was then shipped to Lennox’s facilities in Texas, where it was tested in the entire air conditioning system. Lennox was able to achieve 95% of the maximum rotational speed. They employed the same inverter as MSI. Lennox compiled the results of the testing and based upon the results, a go forward plan has been developed to correct the issues with the inverter, as well as redesign some parts that proved to be a challenge during the program. The consensus of the team is that a fully functional air conditioning system can be developed to achieve all of the goals identified in this program.},
doi = {10.2172/1474314},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}