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Title: Direct observation of a two-dimensional hole gas at oxide interfaces

Abstract

The discovery of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 interface has resulted in the observation of many properties not present in conventional semiconductor heterostructures, and so become a focal point for device applications. Its counterpart, the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), is expected to complement the 2DEG. However, although the 2DEG has been widely observed, the 2DHG has proved elusive. Here in this paper we demonstrate a highly mobile 2DHG in epitaxially grown SrTiO 3/LaAlO 3/SrTiO 3 heterostructures. Using electrical transport measurements and in-line electron holography, we provide direct evidence of a 2DHG that coexists with a 2DEG at complementary heterointerfaces in the same structure. First-principles calculations, coherent Bragg rod analysis and depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy consistently support our finding that to eliminate ionic point defects is key to realizing a 2DHG. Lastly, the coexistence of a 2DEG and a 2DHG in a single oxide heterostructure provides a platform for the exciting physics of confined electron-hole systems and for developing applications.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [4];  [3]; ORCiD logo [7];  [8];  [3];  [5];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  3. Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Energy Science
  4. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics
  5. Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  6. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS), X-Ray Science Division
  7. Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Energy Science; Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (POSTECH) (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  8. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1469800
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; FG02-06ER46327; DMR-1629270; DMR-1420645; DMR-1305193; FA9550-15-1-0334; FA2386-15-1-4046
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 17; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1476-1122
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Lee, H., Campbell, N., Lee, J., Asel, T. J., Paudel, T. R., Zhou, H., Lee, J. W., Noesges, B., Seo, J., Park, B., Brillson, L. J., Oh, S. H., Tsymbal, E. Y., Rzchowski, M. S., and Eom, C. B. Direct observation of a two-dimensional hole gas at oxide interfaces. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41563-017-0002-4.
Lee, H., Campbell, N., Lee, J., Asel, T. J., Paudel, T. R., Zhou, H., Lee, J. W., Noesges, B., Seo, J., Park, B., Brillson, L. J., Oh, S. H., Tsymbal, E. Y., Rzchowski, M. S., & Eom, C. B. Direct observation of a two-dimensional hole gas at oxide interfaces. United States. doi:10.1038/s41563-017-0002-4.
Lee, H., Campbell, N., Lee, J., Asel, T. J., Paudel, T. R., Zhou, H., Lee, J. W., Noesges, B., Seo, J., Park, B., Brillson, L. J., Oh, S. H., Tsymbal, E. Y., Rzchowski, M. S., and Eom, C. B. Mon . "Direct observation of a two-dimensional hole gas at oxide interfaces". United States. doi:10.1038/s41563-017-0002-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469800.
@article{osti_1469800,
title = {Direct observation of a two-dimensional hole gas at oxide interfaces},
author = {Lee, H. and Campbell, N. and Lee, J. and Asel, T. J. and Paudel, T. R. and Zhou, H. and Lee, J. W. and Noesges, B. and Seo, J. and Park, B. and Brillson, L. J. and Oh, S. H. and Tsymbal, E. Y. and Rzchowski, M. S. and Eom, C. B.},
abstractNote = {The discovery of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface has resulted in the observation of many properties not present in conventional semiconductor heterostructures, and so become a focal point for device applications. Its counterpart, the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), is expected to complement the 2DEG. However, although the 2DEG has been widely observed, the 2DHG has proved elusive. Here in this paper we demonstrate a highly mobile 2DHG in epitaxially grown SrTiO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Using electrical transport measurements and in-line electron holography, we provide direct evidence of a 2DHG that coexists with a 2DEG at complementary heterointerfaces in the same structure. First-principles calculations, coherent Bragg rod analysis and depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy consistently support our finding that to eliminate ionic point defects is key to realizing a 2DHG. Lastly, the coexistence of a 2DEG and a 2DHG in a single oxide heterostructure provides a platform for the exciting physics of confined electron-hole systems and for developing applications.},
doi = {10.1038/s41563-017-0002-4},
journal = {Nature Materials},
number = 3,
volume = 17,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 05 00:00:00 EST 2018},
month = {Mon Feb 05 00:00:00 EST 2018}
}

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