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Title: High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh

Abstract

The physical controlling factors on coastal plant communities are among the most dynamic of known ecosystems, but climate change alters coastal surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes, which makes rapid measurement of greenhouse gas fluxes critical. Greenhouse gas exchange rates in these terrestrial–aquatic ecosystems are highly variable worldwide with climate, soil type, plant community, and weather. Therefore, increasing data collection and availability should be a priority. Here, we demonstrate and validate physical and analytical modifications to automated soil–flux chamber measurement methods for unattended use in tidally driven wetlands, allowing the high–frequency capture of storm surge and day/night dynamics. Winter CO 2 flux from Sarcocornia perennis marsh to the atmosphere was significantly greater during the day (2.8 mg m –2 h –1) than the night (2.2 mg m –2 h –1) (p < 0.001), while CH 4 was significantly greater during the night (0.16 μg m –2 h –1) than the day (–0.13 μg m –2 h –1) (p = 0.04). The magnitude of CO 2 flux during the day and the frequency of CH 4 flux were reduced during a surge (p < 0.001). Surge did not significantly affect N 2O flux, which without non–detects was normally distributed around –24.2 ngmore » m –2 h –1. Analysis of sustained–flux global potentials for increased storm surge frequency scenarios, 2020 to 2100, suggested that the marsh in winter remains an atmospheric CO 2 sink. The modeled results showed an increased flux of CO 2 to the atmosphere, while in soil, the uptake of CH 4 increased and N 2O uptake decreased. We present analytical routines to correctly capture gas flux curves in dynamic overland flooding conditions and to flag data that are below detection limits or from unobserved chamber–malfunction situations. Storm surge is an important phenomenon globally, but event–driven, episodic factors can be poorly estimated by infrequent sampling. Here, deployment of this system in coastal marshes worldwide would permit its inclusion in flux calculations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1468975
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-135874
Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1354-1013
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CO2; greenhouse gas; salt marsh; Sarcocornia perennis; soil flux chamber; storm surge; sustained‐flux global warming potential; terrestrial aquatic

Citation Formats

Diefenderfer, Heida L., Cullinan, Valerie I., Borde, Amy B., Gunn, Cailene M., and Thom, Ronald M.. High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1111/gcb.14430.
Diefenderfer, Heida L., Cullinan, Valerie I., Borde, Amy B., Gunn, Cailene M., & Thom, Ronald M.. High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh. United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14430.
Diefenderfer, Heida L., Cullinan, Valerie I., Borde, Amy B., Gunn, Cailene M., and Thom, Ronald M.. Mon . "High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh". United States. doi:10.1111/gcb.14430.
@article{osti_1468975,
title = {High-Frequency Greenhouse Gas Flux Measurement System Detects Winter Storm Surge Effects on Salt Marsh},
author = {Diefenderfer, Heida L. and Cullinan, Valerie I. and Borde, Amy B. and Gunn, Cailene M. and Thom, Ronald M.},
abstractNote = {The physical controlling factors on coastal plant communities are among the most dynamic of known ecosystems, but climate change alters coastal surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes, which makes rapid measurement of greenhouse gas fluxes critical. Greenhouse gas exchange rates in these terrestrial–aquatic ecosystems are highly variable worldwide with climate, soil type, plant community, and weather. Therefore, increasing data collection and availability should be a priority. Here, we demonstrate and validate physical and analytical modifications to automated soil–flux chamber measurement methods for unattended use in tidally driven wetlands, allowing the high–frequency capture of storm surge and day/night dynamics. Winter CO2 flux from Sarcocornia perennis marsh to the atmosphere was significantly greater during the day (2.8 mg m–2 h–1) than the night (2.2 mg m–2 h–1) (p < 0.001), while CH4 was significantly greater during the night (0.16 μg m–2 h–1) than the day (–0.13 μg m–2 h–1) (p = 0.04). The magnitude of CO2 flux during the day and the frequency of CH4 flux were reduced during a surge (p < 0.001). Surge did not significantly affect N2O flux, which without non–detects was normally distributed around –24.2 ng m–2 h–1. Analysis of sustained–flux global potentials for increased storm surge frequency scenarios, 2020 to 2100, suggested that the marsh in winter remains an atmospheric CO2 sink. The modeled results showed an increased flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, while in soil, the uptake of CH4 increased and N2O uptake decreased. We present analytical routines to correctly capture gas flux curves in dynamic overland flooding conditions and to flag data that are below detection limits or from unobserved chamber–malfunction situations. Storm surge is an important phenomenon globally, but event–driven, episodic factors can be poorly estimated by infrequent sampling. Here, deployment of this system in coastal marshes worldwide would permit its inclusion in flux calculations.},
doi = {10.1111/gcb.14430},
journal = {Global Change Biology},
number = 12,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 27 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Mon Aug 27 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

A cavity ring-down analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor
journal, August 2008