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Title: Improving Flexibility and Performance of Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion

Abstract

Staged pressurized oxy-combustion (SPOC) is a novel coal combustion power technology being developed by Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) that offers the potential to deliver low-carbon power at a reduced cost. Oxy-combustion plants operate by removing most of the nitrogen contained in air prior to combustion, thereby burning fuel in a near-pure oxygen stream instead of air. This combustion produces a flue gas containing primarily carbon dioxide (CO 2) and water vapor that allows relatively straightforward CO 2 capture. First-generation, atmospheric oxy-combustion technology relies on a flue gas recycle (FGR) diluent to reduce the peak temperatures achieved and the resulting high thermal radiation levels that would otherwise occur in a fuel/oxygen only flame. In contrast, by staging the combustion in several steps, SPOC reduces the peak temperatures of combustion without resorting to a high degree of FGR to control flame temperatures. The SPOC process operates by utilizing two or more pressurized boiler modules connected in series to produce fuel staging; hence, only a portion of the fuel is combusted in any given combustion module. Subsequently the thermal energy released at each stage can be captured and removed from the gases prior to subsequent stages, when more fuel is introduced.more » This allows the SPOC process to operate with minimal FGR, avoiding the associated efficiency losses and additional costs. While the staging controls the heat release profile in SPOC, operating in a pressurized condition yields a more compact system, reducing modular boiler size and delivering enhanced heat transfer. Additionally, operating at elevated pressures ensures that the latent heat of moisture available from moisture in the fuel and generated by the combustion of the hydrogen content in the fuel can be captured as useful thermal energy for steam turbine integration. This is possible due to elevated dew point from the high partial pressure of the moisture generated in this process, which allows substantial feedwater heater bypassing to be achieved. The inclusion of this thermal energy, normally lost to the atmosphere in traditional combustion processes or to cooling systems in atmospheric oxy-combustion, allows the resultant net efficiency of the SPOC system to be up to 6 percentage points greater than first-generation systems. To begin the process of developing this technology for full-scale application, the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. teamed up with WUSTL, American Air Liquide, Doosan Babcock, and the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate a practical and workable boiler design concept that would minimize process risks where possible. The SPOC system offers unique process flexibility opportunities due to the staged nature of the combustion, making it a prime candidate for future primary energy delivery where the ability to operate at reduced load in an efficient manner and ramp rapidly will be valuable for balancing intermittent renewable electricity generation. The efficiency of traditional coal-fired power plants is lower at reduced loads below the steam temperature control range due to the challenges in balancing the heat pickup between radiative and convective superheater and reheater surface. Introducing additional heating surface for optimal extended controlled low load operation will likely lead to excessive attemperation at high loads, ultimately leading to a poorer overall cycle efficiency. The SPOC process can facilitate the adjustment of fuel firing rates between stages, targeting heat pickup to where it is most needed and potentially can shut down stages for low-load operation, facilitating an increased steam temperature control range on turndown. The boiler design concept assessment is being carried out to identify the maximum permissible compactness of the SPOC boiler heating surfaces. The assessment will determine the minimum overall height that will deliver appropriate tube operating metal temperatures at full load and achieve rated reheat steam temperatures at low operating loads, balanced against the needs of efficient coal combustion, and the potential resultant slagging and ash environments. The design parameters are being validated by combustion testing in the 100-kWth pressurized combustion test rig at WUSTL. Parameters being investigated include flame stability, fuel burnout, ash composition, radiative heat flux, and temperature profiles. These are being carried out for a range of inlet gas conditions and compositions and at multiple load conditions to investigate combustion stability at reduced load. The results of this testing inform the modeling of the large-scale system, that was sized at 550 MWe to allow direct comparison with the National Energy Technology Laboratory baseline cases for atmospheric oxy-combustion, air firing, and air firing with post-combustion capture.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4]
  1. Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)
  2. Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)
  3. American Air Liquide Inc.
  4. Doosan Babcock Ltd.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Electric Power Research Institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1468536
Report Number(s):
DOE-EPRI-29087-2
DOE Contract Number:  
FE0029087
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT) - 14, Melbourne Convention Centre - Melbourne, Australia, October 21-25, 2018
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; CO2 capture, pressurized, oxy-combustion, scale-up, pilot testing

Citation Formats

Hume, Scott, Yang, Zhiwei, Kumfer, Benjamin, Axelbaum, Richard, Dhungel, Bhupesh, Slater, Jonathan, Panesar, Ragbhir, and Melling, Peter. Improving Flexibility and Performance of Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Hume, Scott, Yang, Zhiwei, Kumfer, Benjamin, Axelbaum, Richard, Dhungel, Bhupesh, Slater, Jonathan, Panesar, Ragbhir, & Melling, Peter. Improving Flexibility and Performance of Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion. United States.
Hume, Scott, Yang, Zhiwei, Kumfer, Benjamin, Axelbaum, Richard, Dhungel, Bhupesh, Slater, Jonathan, Panesar, Ragbhir, and Melling, Peter. Mon . "Improving Flexibility and Performance of Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1468536.
@article{osti_1468536,
title = {Improving Flexibility and Performance of Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion},
author = {Hume, Scott and Yang, Zhiwei and Kumfer, Benjamin and Axelbaum, Richard and Dhungel, Bhupesh and Slater, Jonathan and Panesar, Ragbhir and Melling, Peter},
abstractNote = {Staged pressurized oxy-combustion (SPOC) is a novel coal combustion power technology being developed by Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL) that offers the potential to deliver low-carbon power at a reduced cost. Oxy-combustion plants operate by removing most of the nitrogen contained in air prior to combustion, thereby burning fuel in a near-pure oxygen stream instead of air. This combustion produces a flue gas containing primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor that allows relatively straightforward CO2 capture. First-generation, atmospheric oxy-combustion technology relies on a flue gas recycle (FGR) diluent to reduce the peak temperatures achieved and the resulting high thermal radiation levels that would otherwise occur in a fuel/oxygen only flame. In contrast, by staging the combustion in several steps, SPOC reduces the peak temperatures of combustion without resorting to a high degree of FGR to control flame temperatures. The SPOC process operates by utilizing two or more pressurized boiler modules connected in series to produce fuel staging; hence, only a portion of the fuel is combusted in any given combustion module. Subsequently the thermal energy released at each stage can be captured and removed from the gases prior to subsequent stages, when more fuel is introduced. This allows the SPOC process to operate with minimal FGR, avoiding the associated efficiency losses and additional costs. While the staging controls the heat release profile in SPOC, operating in a pressurized condition yields a more compact system, reducing modular boiler size and delivering enhanced heat transfer. Additionally, operating at elevated pressures ensures that the latent heat of moisture available from moisture in the fuel and generated by the combustion of the hydrogen content in the fuel can be captured as useful thermal energy for steam turbine integration. This is possible due to elevated dew point from the high partial pressure of the moisture generated in this process, which allows substantial feedwater heater bypassing to be achieved. The inclusion of this thermal energy, normally lost to the atmosphere in traditional combustion processes or to cooling systems in atmospheric oxy-combustion, allows the resultant net efficiency of the SPOC system to be up to 6 percentage points greater than first-generation systems. To begin the process of developing this technology for full-scale application, the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. teamed up with WUSTL, American Air Liquide, Doosan Babcock, and the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate a practical and workable boiler design concept that would minimize process risks where possible. The SPOC system offers unique process flexibility opportunities due to the staged nature of the combustion, making it a prime candidate for future primary energy delivery where the ability to operate at reduced load in an efficient manner and ramp rapidly will be valuable for balancing intermittent renewable electricity generation. The efficiency of traditional coal-fired power plants is lower at reduced loads below the steam temperature control range due to the challenges in balancing the heat pickup between radiative and convective superheater and reheater surface. Introducing additional heating surface for optimal extended controlled low load operation will likely lead to excessive attemperation at high loads, ultimately leading to a poorer overall cycle efficiency. The SPOC process can facilitate the adjustment of fuel firing rates between stages, targeting heat pickup to where it is most needed and potentially can shut down stages for low-load operation, facilitating an increased steam temperature control range on turndown. The boiler design concept assessment is being carried out to identify the maximum permissible compactness of the SPOC boiler heating surfaces. The assessment will determine the minimum overall height that will deliver appropriate tube operating metal temperatures at full load and achieve rated reheat steam temperatures at low operating loads, balanced against the needs of efficient coal combustion, and the potential resultant slagging and ash environments. The design parameters are being validated by combustion testing in the 100-kWth pressurized combustion test rig at WUSTL. Parameters being investigated include flame stability, fuel burnout, ash composition, radiative heat flux, and temperature profiles. These are being carried out for a range of inlet gas conditions and compositions and at multiple load conditions to investigate combustion stability at reduced load. The results of this testing inform the modeling of the large-scale system, that was sized at 550 MWe to allow direct comparison with the National Energy Technology Laboratory baseline cases for atmospheric oxy-combustion, air firing, and air firing with post-combustion capture.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {10}
}

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