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Title: Constraints on Galactic Neutrino Emission with Seven Years of IceCube Data

Abstract

The origins of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos remain a mystery despite extensive searches for their sources. In this paper, we present constraints from seven years of IceCube Neutrino Observatory muon data on the neutrino flux coming from the Galactic plane. This flux is expected from cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium or near localized sources. Two methods were developed to test for a spatially extended flux from the entire plane, both of which are maximum likelihood fits but with different signal and background modeling techniques. We consider three templates for Galactic neutrino emission based primarily on gamma-ray observations and models that cover a wide range of possibilities. Based on these templates and in the benchmark case of an unbroken E -2.5 power-law energy spectrum, we set 90% confidence level upper limits, constraining the possible Galactic contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux to be relatively small, less than 14% of the flux reported in Aartsen et al. above 1 TeV. Finally, a stacking method is also used to test catalogs of known high-energy Galactic gamma-ray sources.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
IceCube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1468345
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 849; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Samarai, I. Al, Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barron, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Brenzke, M., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casey, J., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., André, J. P. A. M. de, Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Lorenzo, V. di, Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kalacynski, P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koschinsky, J. P., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Pepper, J. A., Heros, C. Pérez de los, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sälzer, T., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vehring, M., Vogel, E., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandler, F. D., Wandkowsky, N., Waza, A., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., Yuan, T., and Zoll, M. Constraints on Galactic Neutrino Emission with Seven Years of IceCube Data. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8dfb.
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Samarai, I. Al, Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barron, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Brenzke, M., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casey, J., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., André, J. P. A. M. de, Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Lorenzo, V. di, Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kalacynski, P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koschinsky, J. P., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Pepper, J. A., Heros, C. Pérez de los, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sälzer, T., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vehring, M., Vogel, E., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandler, F. D., Wandkowsky, N., Waza, A., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., Yuan, T., & Zoll, M. Constraints on Galactic Neutrino Emission with Seven Years of IceCube Data. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8dfb.
Aartsen, M. G., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Samarai, I. Al, Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Argüelles, C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bagherpour, H., Bai, X., Barron, J. P., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Tjus, J. Becker, Becker, K. -H., BenZvi, S., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Bourbeau, J., Bradascio, F., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Brenzke, M., Bretz, H. -P., Bron, S., Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casey, J., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., André, J. P. A. M. de, Clercq, C. De, DeLaunay, J. J., Dembinski, H., Ridder, S. De, Desiati, P., Vries, K. D. de, Wasseige, G. de, With, M. de, DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., Lorenzo, V. di, Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Glauch, T., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hanson, K., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Hokanson-Fasig, B., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Kalacynski, P., Kang, W., Kappes, A., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kheirandish, A., Kim, J., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koschinsky, J. P., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Kyriacou, A., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Liu, Q. R., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Luszczak, W., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Micallef, J., Momenté, G., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Nakarmi, P., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Pollmann, A. Obertacke, Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Peiffer, P., Pepper, J. A., Heros, C. Pérez de los, Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Plum, M., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sälzer, T., Herrera, S. E. Sanchez, Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sarkar, S., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schneider, A., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Soldin, D., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stachurska, J., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Stettner, J., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taboada, I., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Tung, C. F., Turcati, A., Turley, C. F., Ty, B., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., Driessche, W. Van, Eijndhoven, N. van, Vanheule, S., Santen, J. van, Vehring, M., Vogel, E., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandler, F. D., Wandkowsky, N., Waza, A., Weaver, C., Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, J., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., Yuan, T., and Zoll, M. Tue . "Constraints on Galactic Neutrino Emission with Seven Years of IceCube Data". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8dfb. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1468345.
@article{osti_1468345,
title = {Constraints on Galactic Neutrino Emission with Seven Years of IceCube Data},
author = {Aartsen, M. G. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Samarai, I. Al and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Argüelles, C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bagherpour, H. and Bai, X. and Barron, J. P. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Tjus, J. Becker and Becker, K. -H. and BenZvi, S. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Bohm, C. and Börner, M. and Bos, F. and Bose, D. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Bourbeau, J. and Bradascio, F. and Braun, J. and Brayeur, L. and Brenzke, M. and Bretz, H. -P. and Bron, S. and Burgman, A. and Carver, T. and Casey, J. and Casier, M. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Christov, A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coenders, S. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Day, M. and André, J. P. A. M. de and Clercq, C. De and DeLaunay, J. J. and Dembinski, H. and Ridder, S. De and Desiati, P. and Vries, K. D. de and Wasseige, G. de and With, M. de and DeYoung, T. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and Lorenzo, V. di and Dujmovic, H. and Dumm, J. P. and Dunkman, M. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eichmann, B. and Eller, P. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Flis, S. and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fuchs, T. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Giang, W. and Glauch, T. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Haack, C. and Hallgren, A. and Halzen, F. and Hanson, K. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Hokanson-Fasig, B. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and In, S. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Kalacynski, P. and Kang, W. and Kappes, A. and Karg, T. and Karle, A. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, J. and Kim, M. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Kohnen, G. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koschinsky, J. P. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krings, K. and Kroll, M. and Krückl, G. and Kunnen, J. and Kunwar, S. and Kurahashi, N. and Kuwabara, T. and Kyriacou, A. and Labare, M. and Lanfranchi, J. L. and Larson, M. J. and Lauber, F. and Lennarz, D. and Lesiak-Bzdak, M. and Leuermann, M. and Liu, Q. R. and Lu, L. and Lünemann, J. and Luszczak, W. and Madsen, J. and Maggi, G. and Mahn, K. B. 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abstractNote = {The origins of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos remain a mystery despite extensive searches for their sources. In this paper, we present constraints from seven years of IceCube Neutrino Observatory muon data on the neutrino flux coming from the Galactic plane. This flux is expected from cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium or near localized sources. Two methods were developed to test for a spatially extended flux from the entire plane, both of which are maximum likelihood fits but with different signal and background modeling techniques. We consider three templates for Galactic neutrino emission based primarily on gamma-ray observations and models that cover a wide range of possibilities. Based on these templates and in the benchmark case of an unbroken E-2.5 power-law energy spectrum, we set 90% confidence level upper limits, constraining the possible Galactic contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux to be relatively small, less than 14% of the flux reported in Aartsen et al. above 1 TeV. Finally, a stacking method is also used to test catalogs of known high-energy Galactic gamma-ray sources.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aa8dfb},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 1,
volume = 849,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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