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Title: Work Function Modification via Combined Charge-Based Through-Space Interaction and Surface Interaction

Abstract

Work function modification of electrodes is an important factor to achieve high performance in organic electronics. However, a clear explanation of the origin of work function modification has remained elusive. Here, it is investigated how the work function of electrodes is affected by the charge-based through-space interaction with the well-known surface interaction. The studies reveal that the formation of a surface dipole leads to a work function shift, even when the work function modifying layer and substrate are separated. A work function shift is also demonstrated by electrophoretic deposition of ionic polyelectrolytes while the same polyelectrolytes do not cause any work function shift when they are spin cast. More noteworthy is that a neutral (nonionic) polymer which has no specific surface-interacting functional groups can induce work function shift of its substrate by a charge-based through-space interaction when deposited by electrospraying. These results provide a more comprehensive understanding of work function modification and motivate the design and selection of a wide range of effective work function modifying layers for organic electronics.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]
  1. Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA
  2. Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA
  3. Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Process Innovation Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 Republic of Korea
  4. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA
  5. Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan 31056 Republic of Korea
  6. Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Biointerface Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA
  7. Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver W. Pkwy Golden CO 80401 USA
  8. Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Biointerface Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109 USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion (CSTEC); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1468329
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5A00-72288
Journal ID: ISSN 2196-7350
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials Interfaces
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 2196-7350
Publisher:
Wiley-VCH
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; organic electronics; polyelectrolyte; work function

Citation Formats

Yang, Da Seul, Bilby, David, Chung, Kyeongwoon, Wenderott, Jill K., Jordahl, Jacob, Kim, Bo Hyun, Lahann, Joerg, Green, Peter F., and Kim, Jinsang. Work Function Modification via Combined Charge-Based Through-Space Interaction and Surface Interaction. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/admi.201800471.
Yang, Da Seul, Bilby, David, Chung, Kyeongwoon, Wenderott, Jill K., Jordahl, Jacob, Kim, Bo Hyun, Lahann, Joerg, Green, Peter F., & Kim, Jinsang. Work Function Modification via Combined Charge-Based Through-Space Interaction and Surface Interaction. United States. doi:10.1002/admi.201800471.
Yang, Da Seul, Bilby, David, Chung, Kyeongwoon, Wenderott, Jill K., Jordahl, Jacob, Kim, Bo Hyun, Lahann, Joerg, Green, Peter F., and Kim, Jinsang. Mon . "Work Function Modification via Combined Charge-Based Through-Space Interaction and Surface Interaction". United States. doi:10.1002/admi.201800471.
@article{osti_1468329,
title = {Work Function Modification via Combined Charge-Based Through-Space Interaction and Surface Interaction},
author = {Yang, Da Seul and Bilby, David and Chung, Kyeongwoon and Wenderott, Jill K. and Jordahl, Jacob and Kim, Bo Hyun and Lahann, Joerg and Green, Peter F. and Kim, Jinsang},
abstractNote = {Work function modification of electrodes is an important factor to achieve high performance in organic electronics. However, a clear explanation of the origin of work function modification has remained elusive. Here, it is investigated how the work function of electrodes is affected by the charge-based through-space interaction with the well-known surface interaction. The studies reveal that the formation of a surface dipole leads to a work function shift, even when the work function modifying layer and substrate are separated. A work function shift is also demonstrated by electrophoretic deposition of ionic polyelectrolytes while the same polyelectrolytes do not cause any work function shift when they are spin cast. More noteworthy is that a neutral (nonionic) polymer which has no specific surface-interacting functional groups can induce work function shift of its substrate by a charge-based through-space interaction when deposited by electrospraying. These results provide a more comprehensive understanding of work function modification and motivate the design and selection of a wide range of effective work function modifying layers for organic electronics.},
doi = {10.1002/admi.201800471},
journal = {Advanced Materials Interfaces},
issn = {2196-7350},
number = 15,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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A Universal Method to Produce Low-Work Function Electrodes for Organic Electronics
journal, April 2012