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Title: The atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the ACME v0.3 model

Abstract

We examine the global water cycle characteristics in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy v0.3 model (a close relative to version 5.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model) in atmosphere-only simulations spanning the years 1980–2005. We evaluate the simulations using a broad range of observational and reanalysis datasets, examine how the simulations change when the horizontal resolution is increased from 1° to 0.25, and compare the simulations against models participating in the the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Particular effort has been made to evaluate the model using the best available observational estimates and verifying model biases with additional datasets when differences are known to exist among the observations. Regardless of resolution, the model exhibits several biases: global-mean precipitation, evaporation, and precipitable water are too high, light precipitation occurs too frequently, and the atmospheric residence time of water is too short. Many of these biases are shared by the multi-model mean climate of models participating in CMIP5. The reasons behind regional biases in precipitation are discussed by examining how different fields, such as local evaporation and transport of water vapor, contribute to the bias. Although increasing the horizontal resolution does not drastically change themore » water cycle, it does lead to a few differences: an increase in global mean precipitation rate, an increase in the fraction of total precipitation that falls over land, more frequent heavy precipitation (>30 mm day -1), and a decrease in precipitable water. One of the most notable changes is the shift of precipitation produced by the convective parameterization to that produced by the large-scale microphysics parameterization. We analyze how changes in moisture and circulation with resolution contribute to this shift in the precipitation partitioning. Because changing horizontal resolution requires some re-tuning, the effect of that tuning was evaluated by performing an additional simulation at 1 but using the tunings from the 0.25 simulation. In conclusion, the evaluation shows that the more frequent heavy precipitation, the decrease in precipitable water, and the shift from convective to large-scale precipitation are predominantly due to resolution changes, while tuning changes have a major influence on the global mean precipitation and the land/ ocean partitioning of precipitation.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Cloud Processes Research Group
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR)
OSTI Identifier:
1468074
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1461872
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357; AC02-05CH11231; AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Climate Dynamics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 9-10; Journal ID: ISSN 0930-7575
Publisher:
Springer-Verlag
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Water cycle; Precipitation; Climate modeling; Horizontal resolution; Model evaluation

Citation Formats

Terai, Christopher R., Caldwell, Peter M., Klein, Stephen A., Tang, Qi, and Branstetter, Marcia L. The atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the ACME v0.3 model. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3803-x.
Terai, Christopher R., Caldwell, Peter M., Klein, Stephen A., Tang, Qi, & Branstetter, Marcia L. The atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the ACME v0.3 model. United States. doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3803-x.
Terai, Christopher R., Caldwell, Peter M., Klein, Stephen A., Tang, Qi, and Branstetter, Marcia L. Fri . "The atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the ACME v0.3 model". United States. doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3803-x. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1468074.
@article{osti_1468074,
title = {The atmospheric hydrologic cycle in the ACME v0.3 model},
author = {Terai, Christopher R. and Caldwell, Peter M. and Klein, Stephen A. and Tang, Qi and Branstetter, Marcia L.},
abstractNote = {We examine the global water cycle characteristics in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy v0.3 model (a close relative to version 5.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model) in atmosphere-only simulations spanning the years 1980–2005. We evaluate the simulations using a broad range of observational and reanalysis datasets, examine how the simulations change when the horizontal resolution is increased from 1° to 0.25, and compare the simulations against models participating in the the Atmosphere Model Intercomparison Project of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Particular effort has been made to evaluate the model using the best available observational estimates and verifying model biases with additional datasets when differences are known to exist among the observations. Regardless of resolution, the model exhibits several biases: global-mean precipitation, evaporation, and precipitable water are too high, light precipitation occurs too frequently, and the atmospheric residence time of water is too short. Many of these biases are shared by the multi-model mean climate of models participating in CMIP5. The reasons behind regional biases in precipitation are discussed by examining how different fields, such as local evaporation and transport of water vapor, contribute to the bias. Although increasing the horizontal resolution does not drastically change the water cycle, it does lead to a few differences: an increase in global mean precipitation rate, an increase in the fraction of total precipitation that falls over land, more frequent heavy precipitation (>30 mm day-1), and a decrease in precipitable water. One of the most notable changes is the shift of precipitation produced by the convective parameterization to that produced by the large-scale microphysics parameterization. We analyze how changes in moisture and circulation with resolution contribute to this shift in the precipitation partitioning. Because changing horizontal resolution requires some re-tuning, the effect of that tuning was evaluated by performing an additional simulation at 1 but using the tunings from the 0.25 simulation. In conclusion, the evaluation shows that the more frequent heavy precipitation, the decrease in precipitable water, and the shift from convective to large-scale precipitation are predominantly due to resolution changes, while tuning changes have a major influence on the global mean precipitation and the land/ ocean partitioning of precipitation.},
doi = {10.1007/s00382-017-3803-x},
journal = {Climate Dynamics},
issn = {0930-7575},
number = 9-10,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 12 works
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Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: Set of tuning parameters and physics time steps that differ and are used in the NE120 simulations, NE30 simulations, NE30 simulation with NE120 tunings, and the atmosphere model used in the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM LENS) project

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The processes governing horizontal resolution sensitivity in a climate model
    journal, July 2002


    Objectively Analyzed Air–Sea Heat Fluxes for the Global Ice-Free Oceans (1981–2005)
    journal, April 2007

    • Yu, Lisan; Weller, Robert A.
    • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 88, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1175/bams-88-4-527

    A multimodel intercomparison of resolution effects on precipitation: simulations and theory
    journal, February 2016

    • Rauscher, Sara A.; O’Brien, Travis A.; Piani, Claudio
    • Climate Dynamics, Vol. 47, Issue 7-8
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00382-015-2959-5

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project: A Community Resource for Studying Climate Change in the Presence of Internal Climate Variability
    journal, August 2015

    • Kay, J. E.; Deser, C.; Phillips, A.
    • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 96, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1175/bams-d-13-00255.1

    Robust effects of cloud superparameterization on simulated daily rainfall intensity statistics across multiple versions of the C ommunity E arth S ystem M odel
    journal, February 2016

    • Kooperman, Gabriel J.; Pritchard, Michael S.; Burt, Melissa A.
    • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/2015ms000574

    A New Moist Turbulence Parameterization in the Community Atmosphere Model
    journal, June 2009


    The JRA-55 Reanalysis: General Specifications and Basic Characteristics
    journal, January 2015

    • Kobayashi, Shinya; Ota, Yukinari; Harada, Yayoi
    • Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II, Vol. 93, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.2151/jmsj.2015-001

    The effect of time steps and time-scales on parametrization suites
    journal, August 2012

    • Williamson, David L.
    • Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 139, Issue 671
    • DOI: 10.1002/qj.1992

    The global climatology of an interannually varying air–sea flux data set
    journal, August 2008


    Changes in the Distribution of Rain Frequency and Intensity in Response to Global Warming
    journal, November 2014


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    journal, March 2014

    • Schmidt, Gavin A.; Kelley, Max; Nazarenko, Larissa
    • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/2013ms000265

    Energetics of Climate Models: net Energy Balance and Meridional Enthalpy Transport
    journal, January 2011


    The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)
    journal, December 2003


    AIRS: Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases
    journal, July 2006

    • Chahine, Moustafa T.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.
    • Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 87, Issue 7
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