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Title: Quantifying the flexibility of hydrogen production systems to support large-scale renewable energy integration

Abstract

Hydrogen is a flexible energy carrier that can be produced in various ways and support a variety of applications including industrial processes, energy storage and electricity production, and can serve as an alternative transportation fuel. Hydrogen can be integrated in multiple energy sectors and has the potential to increase overall energy system flexibility, improve energy security, and reduce environmental impact. In this paper, the interactions between fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), hydrogen production facilities, and the electric power grid are explored. The flexibility of hydrogen production systems can create synergistic opportunities to better integrate renewable sources into the electricity system. To quantify this potential, we project the hourly system-wide balancing challenges in California out to 2025 as more renewables are deployed and electricity demand continues to grow. Passenger FCEV adoption and refueling behavior are modeled in detail to spatially and temporally resolve the hydrogen demand. We then quantify the system-wide balancing benefits of controlling hydrogen production from water electrolysis to mitigate renewable intermittency, without compromising the mobility needs of FCEV drivers. Finally, a control algorithm that can achieve different objectives, including peak shaving, valley filling, and ramping mitigation is proposed. Here, our results show that oversizing electrolyzers can provide considerablemore » benefits to mitigate renewable intermittency, while also supporting the deployment of hydrogen vehicles to help decarbonize the transportation sector.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); TESLA, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
OSTI Identifier:
1467554
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1495307
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-72019
Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; AC02- 05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 399; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 08 HYDROGEN; grid integration; hydrogen; fuel cell electric vehicle; renewable energy; electric power system; duck curve

Citation Formats

Wang, Dai, Muratori, Matteo, Eichman, Joshua D, Wei, Max, Saxena, Samveg, and Zhang, Cong. Quantifying the flexibility of hydrogen production systems to support large-scale renewable energy integration. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.07.101.
Wang, Dai, Muratori, Matteo, Eichman, Joshua D, Wei, Max, Saxena, Samveg, & Zhang, Cong. Quantifying the flexibility of hydrogen production systems to support large-scale renewable energy integration. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.07.101.
Wang, Dai, Muratori, Matteo, Eichman, Joshua D, Wei, Max, Saxena, Samveg, and Zhang, Cong. Sat . "Quantifying the flexibility of hydrogen production systems to support large-scale renewable energy integration". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.07.101.
@article{osti_1467554,
title = {Quantifying the flexibility of hydrogen production systems to support large-scale renewable energy integration},
author = {Wang, Dai and Muratori, Matteo and Eichman, Joshua D and Wei, Max and Saxena, Samveg and Zhang, Cong},
abstractNote = {Hydrogen is a flexible energy carrier that can be produced in various ways and support a variety of applications including industrial processes, energy storage and electricity production, and can serve as an alternative transportation fuel. Hydrogen can be integrated in multiple energy sectors and has the potential to increase overall energy system flexibility, improve energy security, and reduce environmental impact. In this paper, the interactions between fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), hydrogen production facilities, and the electric power grid are explored. The flexibility of hydrogen production systems can create synergistic opportunities to better integrate renewable sources into the electricity system. To quantify this potential, we project the hourly system-wide balancing challenges in California out to 2025 as more renewables are deployed and electricity demand continues to grow. Passenger FCEV adoption and refueling behavior are modeled in detail to spatially and temporally resolve the hydrogen demand. We then quantify the system-wide balancing benefits of controlling hydrogen production from water electrolysis to mitigate renewable intermittency, without compromising the mobility needs of FCEV drivers. Finally, a control algorithm that can achieve different objectives, including peak shaving, valley filling, and ramping mitigation is proposed. Here, our results show that oversizing electrolyzers can provide considerable benefits to mitigate renewable intermittency, while also supporting the deployment of hydrogen vehicles to help decarbonize the transportation sector.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.07.101},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
issn = {0378-7753},
number = C,
volume = 399,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on August 4, 2019
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