skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects

Abstract

Carbon-fiber composite structures may demonstrate a defective behavior due to manufacturing induced anomalies (delamination, dis-bonds) or service related defectives (impact damage, water ingress). Thus, there is a need for a relatively fast and low cost non-intrusive testing schemes such as infrared thermography (IRT). Still, thermography testing requires calibrated samples and coupons to yield best results. The presented research demonstrates the novel use of 3D printing technology to generate IRT calibration samples. In this text, two carbon fiber reinforced polymer samples are 3D printed; the first mimics a 'back-drilled holes' type coupons, while the other is designed to embed air pockets similar to Teflon inserts. The generated samples are then tested using two IRT modalities; namely pulse thermography and lock-in thermography. Furthermore, the resulted thermograms are processed using a principle component analysis, to help highlight the variance of defectives in a consistent manner among the samples. This research findings offer insights on the variation of detectability between embedded and back-printed samples, which might be due to the inserts thickness.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1467173
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-6A20-72255
Journal ID: ISSN 0195-9298
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0195-9298
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; thermography; composites; CFRP; back drilled holes; calibration; 3D printing

Citation Formats

Saeed, Numan, Omar, Mohammed A., Abdulrahman, Yusra, Salem, Sultan, and Mayyas, Ahmad. IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2.
Saeed, Numan, Omar, Mohammed A., Abdulrahman, Yusra, Salem, Sultan, & Mayyas, Ahmad. IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects. United States. doi:10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2.
Saeed, Numan, Omar, Mohammed A., Abdulrahman, Yusra, Salem, Sultan, and Mayyas, Ahmad. Tue . "IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects". United States. doi:10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2.
@article{osti_1467173,
title = {IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects},
author = {Saeed, Numan and Omar, Mohammed A. and Abdulrahman, Yusra and Salem, Sultan and Mayyas, Ahmad},
abstractNote = {Carbon-fiber composite structures may demonstrate a defective behavior due to manufacturing induced anomalies (delamination, dis-bonds) or service related defectives (impact damage, water ingress). Thus, there is a need for a relatively fast and low cost non-intrusive testing schemes such as infrared thermography (IRT). Still, thermography testing requires calibrated samples and coupons to yield best results. The presented research demonstrates the novel use of 3D printing technology to generate IRT calibration samples. In this text, two carbon fiber reinforced polymer samples are 3D printed; the first mimics a 'back-drilled holes' type coupons, while the other is designed to embed air pockets similar to Teflon inserts. The generated samples are then tested using two IRT modalities; namely pulse thermography and lock-in thermography. Furthermore, the resulted thermograms are processed using a principle component analysis, to help highlight the variance of defectives in a consistent manner among the samples. This research findings offer insights on the variation of detectability between embedded and back-printed samples, which might be due to the inserts thickness.},
doi = {10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2},
journal = {Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation},
issn = {0195-9298},
number = 3,
volume = 37,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Transient thermography in the assessment of defects of aircraft composites
journal, September 2003


Comparison between pulsed and modulated thermography in glass–epoxy laminates
journal, July 2002


Non Destructive Evaluation of Advanced Composite Materials for Aerospace Application Using HTS SQUIDs
journal, June 2007

  • Bonavolonta, C.; Valentino, M.; Peluso, G.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 17, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2007.897193

Review of NDT methods in the assessment of concrete and masonry structures
journal, March 2001


Measurement of voids in composites by X-ray Computed Tomography
journal, December 2013


Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction
journal, February 2005


Optimization of the Inspection of Large Composite Materials Using Robotized Line Scan Thermography
journal, April 2017

  • Khodayar, Fariba; Lopez, Fernando; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente
  • Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 36, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0412-x

Advances in pulsed phase thermography
journal, June 2002


Infrared imaging of defects heated by a sonic pulse
journal, June 2000

  • Favro, L. D.; Han, Xiaoyan; Ouyang, Zhong
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 71, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1150630

Modeling 3D heat flow interaction with defects in composite materials for infrared thermography
journal, September 2014


Sparse Principal Component Thermography for Subsurface Defect Detection in Composite Products
journal, December 2018

  • Wu, Jin-Yi; Sfarra, Stefano; Yao, Yuan
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol. 14, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1109/TII.2018.2817520

Automated transient thermography for the inspection of CFRP structures: experimental results and developed procedures
conference, May 2011

  • Theodorakeas, P.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Hrissagis, K.
  • SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.882695

Comparative Study of Active Thermography Techniques for the Nondestructive Evaluation of Honeycomb Structures
journal, January 2009

  • Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Piau, Jean-Marc; Guilbert, Stéphane
  • Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 20, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1080/09349840802366617

Pulse phase infrared thermography
journal, March 1996

  • Maldague, X.; Marinetti, S.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 79, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.362662

Robust quantitative depth estimation on CFRP samples using active thermography inspection and numerical simulation updating
journal, April 2017