skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects

Abstract

Carbon-fiber composite structures may demonstrate a defective behavior due to manufacturing induced anomalies (delamination, dis-bonds) or service related defectives (impact damage, water ingress). Thus, there is a need for a relatively fast and low cost non-intrusive testing schemes such as infrared thermography (IRT). Still, thermography testing requires calibrated samples and coupons to yield best results. The presented research demonstrates the novel use of 3D printing technology to generate IRT calibration samples. In this text, two carbon fiber reinforced polymer samples are 3D printed; the first mimics a 'back-drilled holes' type coupons, while the other is designed to embed air pockets similar to Teflon inserts. The generated samples are then tested using two IRT modalities; namely pulse thermography and lock-in thermography. Furthermore, the resulted thermograms are processed using a principle component analysis, to help highlight the variance of defectives in a consistent manner among the samples. This research findings offer insights on the variation of detectability between embedded and back-printed samples, which might be due to the inserts thickness.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1467173
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-6A20-72255
Journal ID: ISSN 0195-9298
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0195-9298
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; thermography; composites; CFRP; back drilled holes; calibration; 3D printing

Citation Formats

Saeed, Numan, Omar, Mohammed A., Abdulrahman, Yusra, Salem, Sultan, and Mayyas, Ahmad. IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2.
Saeed, Numan, Omar, Mohammed A., Abdulrahman, Yusra, Salem, Sultan, & Mayyas, Ahmad. IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects. United States. doi:10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2.
Saeed, Numan, Omar, Mohammed A., Abdulrahman, Yusra, Salem, Sultan, and Mayyas, Ahmad. Tue . "IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects". United States. doi:10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2.
@article{osti_1467173,
title = {IR Thermographic Analysis of 3D Printed CFRP Reference Samples with Back-Drilled and Embedded Defects},
author = {Saeed, Numan and Omar, Mohammed A. and Abdulrahman, Yusra and Salem, Sultan and Mayyas, Ahmad},
abstractNote = {Carbon-fiber composite structures may demonstrate a defective behavior due to manufacturing induced anomalies (delamination, dis-bonds) or service related defectives (impact damage, water ingress). Thus, there is a need for a relatively fast and low cost non-intrusive testing schemes such as infrared thermography (IRT). Still, thermography testing requires calibrated samples and coupons to yield best results. The presented research demonstrates the novel use of 3D printing technology to generate IRT calibration samples. In this text, two carbon fiber reinforced polymer samples are 3D printed; the first mimics a 'back-drilled holes' type coupons, while the other is designed to embed air pockets similar to Teflon inserts. The generated samples are then tested using two IRT modalities; namely pulse thermography and lock-in thermography. Furthermore, the resulted thermograms are processed using a principle component analysis, to help highlight the variance of defectives in a consistent manner among the samples. This research findings offer insights on the variation of detectability between embedded and back-printed samples, which might be due to the inserts thickness.},
doi = {10.1007/s10921-018-0512-2},
journal = {Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation},
issn = {0195-9298},
number = 3,
volume = 37,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}