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Title: Artificial two-dimensional polar metal at room temperature

Abstract

Polar metals, commonly defined by the coexistence of polar crystal structure and metallicity, are thought to be scarce because the long-range electrostatic fields favoring the polar structure are expected to be fully screened by the conduction electrons of a metal. Moreover, reducing from three to two dimensions, it remains an open question whether a polar metal can exist. Here we report on the realization of a room temperature two-dimensional polar metal of the B-site type in tri-color (tri-layer) superlattices BaTiO 3/SrTiO 3/LaTiO 3. A combination of atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, optical second harmonic generation, electrical transport, and first-principles calculations have revealed the microscopic mechanisms of periodic electric polarization, charge distribution, and orbital symmetry. Lastly, our results provide a route to creating all-oxide artificial non-centrosymmetric quasi-two-dimensional metals with exotic quantum states including coexisting ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and superconducting phases.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [10];  [10];  [4];  [7];  [5];  [5]
  1. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Inst. of Materials Technology and Engineering
  2. Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  4. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Material Sciences and Engineering and Materials Research Inst.
  5. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  6. Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Physics
  7. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.
  8. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France). XMas CRG
  9. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Dublin City Univ., Dublin (Ireland). School of Physical Sciences
  10. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1466346
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1457348; OSTI ID: 1460354
Report Number(s):
BNL-205793-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Cao, Yanwei, Wang, Zhen, Park, Se Young, Yuan, Yakun, Liu, Xiaoran, Nikitin, Sergey M., Akamatsu, Hirofumi, Kareev, M., Middey, S., Meyers, D., Thompson, P., Ryan, P. J., Shafer, Padraic, N?Diaye, A., Arenholz, E., Gopalan, Venkatraman, Zhu, Yimei, Rabe, Karin M., and Chakhalian, J. Artificial two-dimensional polar metal at room temperature. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03964-9.
Cao, Yanwei, Wang, Zhen, Park, Se Young, Yuan, Yakun, Liu, Xiaoran, Nikitin, Sergey M., Akamatsu, Hirofumi, Kareev, M., Middey, S., Meyers, D., Thompson, P., Ryan, P. J., Shafer, Padraic, N?Diaye, A., Arenholz, E., Gopalan, Venkatraman, Zhu, Yimei, Rabe, Karin M., & Chakhalian, J. Artificial two-dimensional polar metal at room temperature. United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03964-9.
Cao, Yanwei, Wang, Zhen, Park, Se Young, Yuan, Yakun, Liu, Xiaoran, Nikitin, Sergey M., Akamatsu, Hirofumi, Kareev, M., Middey, S., Meyers, D., Thompson, P., Ryan, P. J., Shafer, Padraic, N?Diaye, A., Arenholz, E., Gopalan, Venkatraman, Zhu, Yimei, Rabe, Karin M., and Chakhalian, J. Wed . "Artificial two-dimensional polar metal at room temperature". United States. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03964-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1466346.
@article{osti_1466346,
title = {Artificial two-dimensional polar metal at room temperature},
author = {Cao, Yanwei and Wang, Zhen and Park, Se Young and Yuan, Yakun and Liu, Xiaoran and Nikitin, Sergey M. and Akamatsu, Hirofumi and Kareev, M. and Middey, S. and Meyers, D. and Thompson, P. and Ryan, P. J. and Shafer, Padraic and N?Diaye, A. and Arenholz, E. and Gopalan, Venkatraman and Zhu, Yimei and Rabe, Karin M. and Chakhalian, J.},
abstractNote = {Polar metals, commonly defined by the coexistence of polar crystal structure and metallicity, are thought to be scarce because the long-range electrostatic fields favoring the polar structure are expected to be fully screened by the conduction electrons of a metal. Moreover, reducing from three to two dimensions, it remains an open question whether a polar metal can exist. Here we report on the realization of a room temperature two-dimensional polar metal of the B-site type in tri-color (tri-layer) superlattices BaTiO3/SrTiO3/LaTiO3. A combination of atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, optical second harmonic generation, electrical transport, and first-principles calculations have revealed the microscopic mechanisms of periodic electric polarization, charge distribution, and orbital symmetry. Lastly, our results provide a route to creating all-oxide artificial non-centrosymmetric quasi-two-dimensional metals with exotic quantum states including coexisting ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and superconducting phases.},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-03964-9},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 18 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Wed Apr 18 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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