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Title: Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Science Plan

Abstract

General circulation models and downscaled regional models exhibit persistent biases in deep convective initiation location and timing, cloud top height, stratiform area and precipitation fraction, and anvil coverage. Despite important impacts on the distribution of atmospheric heating, moistening, and momentum, nearly all climate models fail to represent convective organization, while system evolution is not represented at all. Improving representation of convective systems in models requires characterization of their predictability as a function of environmental conditions, and this characterization depends on observing many cases of convective initiation, non-initiation, organization, and non-organization. The Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) experiment in the Sierras de Córdoba mountain range of north-central Argentina is designed to improve understanding of cloud life cycle and organization in relation to environmental conditions so that cumulus, microphysics, and aerosol parameterizations in multiscale models can be improved. The Sierras de Córdoba range has a high frequency of orographic boundary-layer clouds, many reaching congestus depths, many initiating into deep convection, and some organizing into mesoscale systems uniquely observable from a single fixed site. Some systems even grow upscale to become among the deepest, largest, and longest-lived in the world. These systems likely contribute to an observed regional trend of increasingmore » extreme rainfall, and poor prediction of them likely contributes to a warm, dry bias in climate models downstream of the Sierras de Córdoba range in a key agricultural region. Many environmental factors influence the convective life cycle in this region, including orographic, low-level jet, and frontal circulations, surface fluxes, synoptic vertical motions influenced by the Andes, cloud detrainment, and aerosol properties. Local and long-range transport of smoke resulting from biomass burning as well as blowing dust are common in the austral spring, while changes in land surface properties as the wet season progresses impact surface fluxes and boundary-layer evolution on daily and seasonal time scales that feed back to cloud and rainfall generation. This range of environmental conditions and cloud properties coupled with a high frequency of events makes this an ideal location for improving our understanding of cloud-environment interactions. The following primary science questions will be addressed through coordinated first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF1), mobile C-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR2), ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-1 (G-1), and guest instrument observations: How are the properties and life cycles of orographically generated cumulus humulis, mediocris, and congestus clouds affected by environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, aerosols, and surface properties? How do these cloud types alter these environmental conditions? How do environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, and aerosols impact deep convective initiation, upscale growth, and mesoscale organization? How are soil moisture, surface fluxes, and aerosol properties altered by deep convective precipitation events and seasonal accumulation of precipitation? This multi-faceted experiment involves a long-term 7-month extended operational period (EOP, 1 October, 2018–30 April, 2019) as well as a 1.5-month intensive operational period (IOP, 30 October–13 December) that will include G-1 observations coinciding with the international multi-agency Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Meso-scale/Micro-scale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [5];  [5];  [8];  [9];  [5];  [1];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaigne
  3. Universidad de Buenos Aires
  4. University of Utah
  5. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
  6. University of Oklahoma
  7. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  8. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  9. University of Washington
  10. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  11. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  12. Universidad Nacional de Cordoba
  13. University of Colorado
  14. University of Illinois
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
DOE Office of Science Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Contributing Org.:
University of Illinois, University of Utah, University of Colorado, Stony Brook University, University of Oklahoma, Colorado State University, University of Washington, Universidad de Buenos Aires, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba
OSTI Identifier:
1465789
Report Number(s):
DOE/SC-ARM-17-004 Rev 1
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-ACO5-7601830
Resource Type:
Program Document
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Convection, Andes, Argentina, cloud life cycle, cloud microphysics, aerosols, orographic effects, lightening, cloud-resolving models, single-column models, cloud macrophysics

Citation Formats

Varble, Adam, Nesbitt, Steve, Salio, Paulo, Zipser, Edward, van den Heever, Susan, MdFarquhar, Greg, Kollias, Pavlos, Kreidenweis, Sonia, DeMott, Paul, Jensen, Michael, Houze, Jr, Robert, Rasmussen, Kristen, Leung, Ruby, Romps, David, Gochis, David, Avila, Eldo, Williams, Christopher R, and Borque, Paloma. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Science Plan. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Varble, Adam, Nesbitt, Steve, Salio, Paulo, Zipser, Edward, van den Heever, Susan, MdFarquhar, Greg, Kollias, Pavlos, Kreidenweis, Sonia, DeMott, Paul, Jensen, Michael, Houze, Jr, Robert, Rasmussen, Kristen, Leung, Ruby, Romps, David, Gochis, David, Avila, Eldo, Williams, Christopher R, & Borque, Paloma. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Science Plan. United States.
Varble, Adam, Nesbitt, Steve, Salio, Paulo, Zipser, Edward, van den Heever, Susan, MdFarquhar, Greg, Kollias, Pavlos, Kreidenweis, Sonia, DeMott, Paul, Jensen, Michael, Houze, Jr, Robert, Rasmussen, Kristen, Leung, Ruby, Romps, David, Gochis, David, Avila, Eldo, Williams, Christopher R, and Borque, Paloma. Wed . "Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Science Plan". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1465789.
@article{osti_1465789,
title = {Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Science Plan},
author = {Varble, Adam and Nesbitt, Steve and Salio, Paulo and Zipser, Edward and van den Heever, Susan and MdFarquhar, Greg and Kollias, Pavlos and Kreidenweis, Sonia and DeMott, Paul and Jensen, Michael and Houze, Jr, Robert and Rasmussen, Kristen and Leung, Ruby and Romps, David and Gochis, David and Avila, Eldo and Williams, Christopher R and Borque, Paloma},
abstractNote = {General circulation models and downscaled regional models exhibit persistent biases in deep convective initiation location and timing, cloud top height, stratiform area and precipitation fraction, and anvil coverage. Despite important impacts on the distribution of atmospheric heating, moistening, and momentum, nearly all climate models fail to represent convective organization, while system evolution is not represented at all. Improving representation of convective systems in models requires characterization of their predictability as a function of environmental conditions, and this characterization depends on observing many cases of convective initiation, non-initiation, organization, and non-organization. The Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) experiment in the Sierras de Córdoba mountain range of north-central Argentina is designed to improve understanding of cloud life cycle and organization in relation to environmental conditions so that cumulus, microphysics, and aerosol parameterizations in multiscale models can be improved. The Sierras de Córdoba range has a high frequency of orographic boundary-layer clouds, many reaching congestus depths, many initiating into deep convection, and some organizing into mesoscale systems uniquely observable from a single fixed site. Some systems even grow upscale to become among the deepest, largest, and longest-lived in the world. These systems likely contribute to an observed regional trend of increasing extreme rainfall, and poor prediction of them likely contributes to a warm, dry bias in climate models downstream of the Sierras de Córdoba range in a key agricultural region. Many environmental factors influence the convective life cycle in this region, including orographic, low-level jet, and frontal circulations, surface fluxes, synoptic vertical motions influenced by the Andes, cloud detrainment, and aerosol properties. Local and long-range transport of smoke resulting from biomass burning as well as blowing dust are common in the austral spring, while changes in land surface properties as the wet season progresses impact surface fluxes and boundary-layer evolution on daily and seasonal time scales that feed back to cloud and rainfall generation. This range of environmental conditions and cloud properties coupled with a high frequency of events makes this an ideal location for improving our understanding of cloud-environment interactions. The following primary science questions will be addressed through coordinated first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF1), mobile C-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR2), ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-1 (G-1), and guest instrument observations: How are the properties and life cycles of orographically generated cumulus humulis, mediocris, and congestus clouds affected by environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, aerosols, and surface properties? How do these cloud types alter these environmental conditions? How do environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, and aerosols impact deep convective initiation, upscale growth, and mesoscale organization? How are soil moisture, surface fluxes, and aerosol properties altered by deep convective precipitation events and seasonal accumulation of precipitation? This multi-faceted experiment involves a long-term 7-month extended operational period (EOP, 1 October, 2018–30 April, 2019) as well as a 1.5-month intensive operational period (IOP, 30 October–13 December) that will include G-1 observations coinciding with the international multi-agency Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Meso-scale/Micro-scale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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