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Title: Chemical Free Surface Processing for High Gradient Superconducting RF Cavities

Abstract

Chemical treatment such as buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electro polishing (EP) followed by high pressure rinsing (HPR) of niobium (Nb) superconducting RF (SRF) cavities is expensive and complex multistep process. Furthermore, the cavity RF surfaces after the treatment still have numerous bubbles and pits that result from welding. These quench-producing weld defects together with the particulate contamination, result in significant scatter of the multi-cell Nb SRF cavities performance characteristics. This scatter is the major problem in the current manufacturing of the Nb SRF cavities. When developed the chemical free surafce processing using IEB will benefit first J-lab's CEBAF and Fermilab's Project X. Also, light sources, require 1.3 - 1.5 GHz SRF structures. Furthermore, IEB will produce much broader impact because it can be implemented into manufacturing of many other types of RF devices including both superconducting as well as normal conducting RF cavities. This program will develop a new process that will enhance quality of the superconducing radio-frequency cavities and allow acceleration of charged particles to much higher energies. The process also will improve the cavity manufacturing and result in substantial cost reduction of superconducting radio-frequency high-energy particle accelerators. Niobium samples were successfully processed by a DC electron beammore » to a degree that is suitable for the interior surface of an SRF cavity. To accomplish this, a complete system was developed from the ground up. A vacuum chamber system was acquired and adapted to act as the vessel for performing the Nb processing experiments. An extremely robust high voltage power supply was developed and manufactured to provide the power necessary to drive the multi-kW DC electron gun. A high voltage isolation filament transformer was also designed and manufactured to provide the necessary current to drive the filament within the electron gun. Finally, a beam melt characterization DC electron gun was created. This gun was used to explore the parameter space of interest for processing Nb SRF cavities. The beam melt characterization tests concluded that multiple quick passes at moderate beam power provided the most ideal melt zone characteristics Nb surfaces. It was also found that excellent melt and polish results could be achieved at lower voltages than originally conceived, getting the great results at a beam voltage of 20kV versus the 50kV used in the initial Phase I testing at Jefferson Laboratory. Operating at 20kV will also greatly reduce the challenges of designing a compact DC electron gun for processing of complete Nb SRF cavities, which will be done in Phase III. This final report is divided in eight parts which cover the major investigation work and results which have been performed and achieved. The first part addresses the design, fabrication and testing of the vacuum chamber. In the second part, the DC power supply output circuit design is presented for providing an operating space of 50-60kV with currents from 20-160mA and short and open circuit fault modes are considered and resolved. The third section covers testing and commissioning of the high voltage step up transformer and 150kV isolation transformer. Section four covers the design, construction and performance for a 100kV high voltage bushing. Section number five treats the filament design and load testing. Section number six covers electron gun design and simulation of electron beam melting. Section seven presents the beam target design, assembly and testing and test gun with solenoid magnet, design, fabrication and testing. Finally, section eight demonstrates electron beam melting and polishing of Nb, Cu and SS samples.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. FM Technologies Inc., Chantilly, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1464736
Report Number(s):
CRADA-2011S002
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0000907
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Cruz, Edward J. Chemical Free Surface Processing for High Gradient Superconducting RF Cavities. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.2172/1464736.
Cruz, Edward J. Chemical Free Surface Processing for High Gradient Superconducting RF Cavities. United States. doi:10.2172/1464736.
Cruz, Edward J. Mon . "Chemical Free Surface Processing for High Gradient Superconducting RF Cavities". United States. doi:10.2172/1464736. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1464736.
@article{osti_1464736,
title = {Chemical Free Surface Processing for High Gradient Superconducting RF Cavities},
author = {Cruz, Edward J.},
abstractNote = {Chemical treatment such as buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electro polishing (EP) followed by high pressure rinsing (HPR) of niobium (Nb) superconducting RF (SRF) cavities is expensive and complex multistep process. Furthermore, the cavity RF surfaces after the treatment still have numerous bubbles and pits that result from welding. These quench-producing weld defects together with the particulate contamination, result in significant scatter of the multi-cell Nb SRF cavities performance characteristics. This scatter is the major problem in the current manufacturing of the Nb SRF cavities. When developed the chemical free surafce processing using IEB will benefit first J-lab's CEBAF and Fermilab's Project X. Also, light sources, require 1.3 - 1.5 GHz SRF structures. Furthermore, IEB will produce much broader impact because it can be implemented into manufacturing of many other types of RF devices including both superconducting as well as normal conducting RF cavities. This program will develop a new process that will enhance quality of the superconducing radio-frequency cavities and allow acceleration of charged particles to much higher energies. The process also will improve the cavity manufacturing and result in substantial cost reduction of superconducting radio-frequency high-energy particle accelerators. Niobium samples were successfully processed by a DC electron beam to a degree that is suitable for the interior surface of an SRF cavity. To accomplish this, a complete system was developed from the ground up. A vacuum chamber system was acquired and adapted to act as the vessel for performing the Nb processing experiments. An extremely robust high voltage power supply was developed and manufactured to provide the power necessary to drive the multi-kW DC electron gun. A high voltage isolation filament transformer was also designed and manufactured to provide the necessary current to drive the filament within the electron gun. Finally, a beam melt characterization DC electron gun was created. This gun was used to explore the parameter space of interest for processing Nb SRF cavities. The beam melt characterization tests concluded that multiple quick passes at moderate beam power provided the most ideal melt zone characteristics Nb surfaces. It was also found that excellent melt and polish results could be achieved at lower voltages than originally conceived, getting the great results at a beam voltage of 20kV versus the 50kV used in the initial Phase I testing at Jefferson Laboratory. Operating at 20kV will also greatly reduce the challenges of designing a compact DC electron gun for processing of complete Nb SRF cavities, which will be done in Phase III. This final report is divided in eight parts which cover the major investigation work and results which have been performed and achieved. The first part addresses the design, fabrication and testing of the vacuum chamber. In the second part, the DC power supply output circuit design is presented for providing an operating space of 50-60kV with currents from 20-160mA and short and open circuit fault modes are considered and resolved. The third section covers testing and commissioning of the high voltage step up transformer and 150kV isolation transformer. Section four covers the design, construction and performance for a 100kV high voltage bushing. Section number five treats the filament design and load testing. Section number six covers electron gun design and simulation of electron beam melting. Section seven presents the beam target design, assembly and testing and test gun with solenoid magnet, design, fabrication and testing. Finally, section eight demonstrates electron beam melting and polishing of Nb, Cu and SS samples.},
doi = {10.2172/1464736},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {6}
}