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Title: A practical field guide to thermoelectrics: Fundamentals, synthesis, and characterization

Abstract

The study of thermoelectric materials spans condensed matter physics, materials science and engineering, and solid-state chemistry. The diversity of the participants and the inherent complexity of the topic mean that it is difficult, if not impossible, for a researcher to be fluent in all aspects of the field. This review, which grew out of a one-week summer school for graduate students, aims to provide an introduction and practical guidance for selected conceptual, synthetic, and characterization approaches and to craft a common umbrella of language, theory, and experimental practice for those engaged in the field of thermoelectric materials. This review does not attempt to cover all major aspects of thermoelectric materials research or review state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Rather, the topics discussed herein reflect the expertise and experience of the authors. We begin by discussing a universal approach to modeling electronic transport using Landauer theory. The core sections of the review are focused on bulk inorganic materials and include a discussion of effective strategies for powder and single crystal synthesis, the use of national synchrotron sources to characterize crystalline materials, error analysis, and modeling of transport data using an effective mass model, and characterization of phonon behavior using inelastic neutron scattering andmore » ultrasonic speed of sound measurements. The final core section discusses the challenges faced when synthesizing carbon-based samples and the measuring or interpretation of their transport properties. We conclude this review with a brief discussion of some of the grand challenges and opportunities that remain to be addressed in the study of thermoelectrics.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [9];  [9];  [10];  [10]
  1. Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
  2. Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
  3. Materials Department, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA
  4. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA; Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, USA
  5. Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA; Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
  6. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA
  7. Applied Energy Programs, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA
  8. Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA
  9. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA
  10. Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22) Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; National Science Foundation (NSF); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC)
OSTI Identifier:
1461853
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-70744
Journal ID: ISSN 1931-9401
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 1651668; 1334713; 1709158; 1729487; AC36-08GO28308; FG02-09ER46577; SC0001299; SC0008931; SC0016390
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Reviews
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1931-9401
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; architectural acoustics; condensed matter physics; crystalline materials; neutron scattering; single crystals; thermoelectric equipment

Citation Formats

Zevalkink, Alex, Smiadak, David M., Blackburn, Jeff L., Ferguson, Andrew J., Chabinyc, Michael L., Delaire, Olivier, Wang, Jian, Kovnir, Kirill, Martin, Joshua, Schelhas, Laura T., Sparks, Taylor D., Kang, Stephen D., Dylla, Maxwell T., Snyder, G. Jeffrey, Ortiz, Brenden R., and Toberer, Eric S. A practical field guide to thermoelectrics: Fundamentals, synthesis, and characterization. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5021094.
Zevalkink, Alex, Smiadak, David M., Blackburn, Jeff L., Ferguson, Andrew J., Chabinyc, Michael L., Delaire, Olivier, Wang, Jian, Kovnir, Kirill, Martin, Joshua, Schelhas, Laura T., Sparks, Taylor D., Kang, Stephen D., Dylla, Maxwell T., Snyder, G. Jeffrey, Ortiz, Brenden R., & Toberer, Eric S. A practical field guide to thermoelectrics: Fundamentals, synthesis, and characterization. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5021094.
Zevalkink, Alex, Smiadak, David M., Blackburn, Jeff L., Ferguson, Andrew J., Chabinyc, Michael L., Delaire, Olivier, Wang, Jian, Kovnir, Kirill, Martin, Joshua, Schelhas, Laura T., Sparks, Taylor D., Kang, Stephen D., Dylla, Maxwell T., Snyder, G. Jeffrey, Ortiz, Brenden R., and Toberer, Eric S. Wed . "A practical field guide to thermoelectrics: Fundamentals, synthesis, and characterization". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5021094.
@article{osti_1461853,
title = {A practical field guide to thermoelectrics: Fundamentals, synthesis, and characterization},
author = {Zevalkink, Alex and Smiadak, David M. and Blackburn, Jeff L. and Ferguson, Andrew J. and Chabinyc, Michael L. and Delaire, Olivier and Wang, Jian and Kovnir, Kirill and Martin, Joshua and Schelhas, Laura T. and Sparks, Taylor D. and Kang, Stephen D. and Dylla, Maxwell T. and Snyder, G. Jeffrey and Ortiz, Brenden R. and Toberer, Eric S.},
abstractNote = {The study of thermoelectric materials spans condensed matter physics, materials science and engineering, and solid-state chemistry. The diversity of the participants and the inherent complexity of the topic mean that it is difficult, if not impossible, for a researcher to be fluent in all aspects of the field. This review, which grew out of a one-week summer school for graduate students, aims to provide an introduction and practical guidance for selected conceptual, synthetic, and characterization approaches and to craft a common umbrella of language, theory, and experimental practice for those engaged in the field of thermoelectric materials. This review does not attempt to cover all major aspects of thermoelectric materials research or review state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Rather, the topics discussed herein reflect the expertise and experience of the authors. We begin by discussing a universal approach to modeling electronic transport using Landauer theory. The core sections of the review are focused on bulk inorganic materials and include a discussion of effective strategies for powder and single crystal synthesis, the use of national synchrotron sources to characterize crystalline materials, error analysis, and modeling of transport data using an effective mass model, and characterization of phonon behavior using inelastic neutron scattering and ultrasonic speed of sound measurements. The final core section discusses the challenges faced when synthesizing carbon-based samples and the measuring or interpretation of their transport properties. We conclude this review with a brief discussion of some of the grand challenges and opportunities that remain to be addressed in the study of thermoelectrics.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5021094},
journal = {Applied Physics Reviews},
issn = {1931-9401},
number = 2,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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