skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion

Abstract

We present detailed ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr, which exploded in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1365. These precise high-cadence light curves provide a dense coverage of the flux evolution from -12 to +140 days with respect to the epoch of B-band maximum ($${t}_{{B}_{\max }}$$). Supplementary imaging at the earliest epochs reveals an initial slow and nearly linear rise in luminosity with a duration of ~2.5 days, followed by a faster rising phase that is well reproduced by an explosion model with a moderate amount of 56 Ni mixing in the ejecta. From our analysis of the light curves, we conclude that: (i) the explosion occurred < 22 hr before the first detection of the supernova, (ii) the rise time to peak bolometric (λ >1800) luminosity was 16.5 ± 0.6 days, (iii) the supernova suffered little or no host-galaxy dust reddening, (iv) the peak luminosity in both the optical and near-infrared was consistent with the bright end of normal Type Ia diversity, and (v) 0.60 ± 0.15 M of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion. Despite its normal luminosity, SN 2012fr displayed unusually prevalent high-velocity Ca ii and Si ii absorption features, and a nearly constant photospheric velocity of the Si ii λ6355 line at ~12,000 km s -1 that began ~5 days before $${t}_{{B}_{\max }}$$. We also highlight some of the other peculiarities in the early phase photometry and the spectral evolution. SN 2012fr also adds to a growing number of Type Ia supernovae that are hosted by galaxies with direct Cepheid distance measurements.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [8];  [10];  [5]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [2];  [12];  [2];  [13];  [2] more »; ORCiD logo [6];  [14]; ORCiD logo [15];  [16]; ORCiD logo [17];  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21]; ORCiD logo [22];  [3];  [23]; ORCiD logo [24];  [6] « less
  1. Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Carnegie Observatories, La Serena (Chile). Las Campanas Observatory
  2. Carnegie Observatories, La Serena (Chile). Las Campanas Observatory
  3. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  4. Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  5. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Physics Dept.
  6. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Inst. for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  7. French Association of Observers of Stars Variables (AFOEV), Strasbourg (France)
  8. Univ. of Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP (France)
  9. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Astronomy Dept.
  10. Parkdale Observatory, Oxford, CT (New Zealand). Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS)
  11. Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Carnegie Observatories, La Serena (Chile). Las Campanas Observatory; Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics
  12. Carnegie Observatories, La Serena (Chile). Las Campanas Observatory; Univ. of La Serena (Chile). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  13. Carnegie Observatories, La Serena (Chile). Las Campanas Observatory; Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, La Serena (Chile)
  14. Carnegie Observatories, La Serena (Chile). Las Campanas Observatory; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), La Serena (Chile)
  15. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics and ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)
  16. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Physics Dept.; Qriously Corp., London (United Kingdom)
  17. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  18. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics and ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy
  19. National Univ. of La Plata (Argentina). Inst. of Astrophysics of La Plata (IALP), CONICET, and Faculty of Astronomical and Geophysical Sciences
  20. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  21. Univ. of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Astronomy
  22. Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics
  23. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics and ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Translational Data Science
  24. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21); National Science Foundation (NSF); Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); Velux Foundations, Soborg (Denmark)
OSTI Identifier:
1457010
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AST0306969; AST0607438; AST1008343; AST1613426; AST1613455; AST1613472; 13261
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 859; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae; SN 2012fr

Citation Formats

Contreras, Carlos, Phillips, M. M., Burns, Christopher R., Piro, Anthony L., Shappee, B. J., Stritzinger, Maximilian D., Baltay, C., Brown, Peter J., Conseil, Emmanuel, Klotz, Alain, Nugent, Peter E., Turpin, Damien, Parker, Stu, Rabinowitz, D., Hsiao, Eric Y., Morrell, Nidia, Campillay, Abdo, Castellon, Sergio, Corco, Carlos, Gonzalez, Consuelo, Krisciunas, Kevin, Seron, Jacqueline, Tucker, Brad E., Walker, E. S., Baron, E., Cain, C., Childress, Michael J., Folatelli, Gaston, Freedman, Wendy L., Hamuy, Mario, Hoeflich, P., Persson, S. E., Scalzo, Richard, Schmidt, Brian, and Suntzeff, Nicholas B. SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aabaf8.
Contreras, Carlos, Phillips, M. M., Burns, Christopher R., Piro, Anthony L., Shappee, B. J., Stritzinger, Maximilian D., Baltay, C., Brown, Peter J., Conseil, Emmanuel, Klotz, Alain, Nugent, Peter E., Turpin, Damien, Parker, Stu, Rabinowitz, D., Hsiao, Eric Y., Morrell, Nidia, Campillay, Abdo, Castellon, Sergio, Corco, Carlos, Gonzalez, Consuelo, Krisciunas, Kevin, Seron, Jacqueline, Tucker, Brad E., Walker, E. S., Baron, E., Cain, C., Childress, Michael J., Folatelli, Gaston, Freedman, Wendy L., Hamuy, Mario, Hoeflich, P., Persson, S. E., Scalzo, Richard, Schmidt, Brian, & Suntzeff, Nicholas B. SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aabaf8.
Contreras, Carlos, Phillips, M. M., Burns, Christopher R., Piro, Anthony L., Shappee, B. J., Stritzinger, Maximilian D., Baltay, C., Brown, Peter J., Conseil, Emmanuel, Klotz, Alain, Nugent, Peter E., Turpin, Damien, Parker, Stu, Rabinowitz, D., Hsiao, Eric Y., Morrell, Nidia, Campillay, Abdo, Castellon, Sergio, Corco, Carlos, Gonzalez, Consuelo, Krisciunas, Kevin, Seron, Jacqueline, Tucker, Brad E., Walker, E. S., Baron, E., Cain, C., Childress, Michael J., Folatelli, Gaston, Freedman, Wendy L., Hamuy, Mario, Hoeflich, P., Persson, S. E., Scalzo, Richard, Schmidt, Brian, and Suntzeff, Nicholas B. Fri . "SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aabaf8. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1457010.
@article{osti_1457010,
title = {SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion},
author = {Contreras, Carlos and Phillips, M. M. and Burns, Christopher R. and Piro, Anthony L. and Shappee, B. J. and Stritzinger, Maximilian D. and Baltay, C. and Brown, Peter J. and Conseil, Emmanuel and Klotz, Alain and Nugent, Peter E. and Turpin, Damien and Parker, Stu and Rabinowitz, D. and Hsiao, Eric Y. and Morrell, Nidia and Campillay, Abdo and Castellon, Sergio and Corco, Carlos and Gonzalez, Consuelo and Krisciunas, Kevin and Seron, Jacqueline and Tucker, Brad E. and Walker, E. S. and Baron, E. and Cain, C. and Childress, Michael J. and Folatelli, Gaston and Freedman, Wendy L. and Hamuy, Mario and Hoeflich, P. and Persson, S. E. and Scalzo, Richard and Schmidt, Brian and Suntzeff, Nicholas B.},
abstractNote = {We present detailed ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr, which exploded in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1365. These precise high-cadence light curves provide a dense coverage of the flux evolution from -12 to +140 days with respect to the epoch of B-band maximum (${t}_{{B}_{\max }}$). Supplementary imaging at the earliest epochs reveals an initial slow and nearly linear rise in luminosity with a duration of ~2.5 days, followed by a faster rising phase that is well reproduced by an explosion model with a moderate amount of 56 Ni mixing in the ejecta. From our analysis of the light curves, we conclude that: (i) the explosion occurred < 22 hr before the first detection of the supernova, (ii) the rise time to peak bolometric (λ >1800) luminosity was 16.5 ± 0.6 days, (iii) the supernova suffered little or no host-galaxy dust reddening, (iv) the peak luminosity in both the optical and near-infrared was consistent with the bright end of normal Type Ia diversity, and (v) 0.60 ± 0.15 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion. Despite its normal luminosity, SN 2012fr displayed unusually prevalent high-velocity Ca ii and Si ii absorption features, and a nearly constant photospheric velocity of the Si ii λ6355 line at ~12,000 km s-1 that began ~5 days before ${t}_{{B}_{\max }}$. We also highlight some of the other peculiarities in the early phase photometry and the spectral evolution. SN 2012fr also adds to a growing number of Type Ia supernovae that are hosted by galaxies with direct Cepheid distance measurements.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aabaf8},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 1,
volume = 859,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 14 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Rise Times of High- and Low-Redshift Type I[CLC]a[/CLC] Supernovae Are Consistent
journal, May 2000

  • Aldering, Greg; Knop, Robert; Nugent, Peter
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 119, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1086/301344

Type I supernovae. I - Analytic solutions for the early part of the light curve
journal, February 1982

  • Arnett, W. D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 253
  • DOI: 10.1086/159681

The QUEST Large Area CCD Camera
journal, November 2007

  • Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Andrews, P.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 119, Issue 861
  • DOI: 10.1086/523899

The La Silla-QUEST Low Redshift Supernova Survey
journal, June 2013

  • Baltay, Charles; Rabinowitz, David; Hadjiyska, Elena
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 125, Issue 928
  • DOI: 10.1086/671198

The Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae: Evidence for Systematics?
journal, April 2005

  • Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Mazzali, P. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 623, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/428608

Improved cosmological constraints from a joint analysis of the SDSS-II and SNLS supernova samples
journal, August 2014


THE SPECTROSCOPIC DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, April 2012


A COMPACT DEGENERATE PRIMARY-STAR PROGENITOR OF SN 2011fe
journal, December 2011


The Hubble constant from nickel radioactivity in type IA supernovae
journal, June 1992

  • Branch, David
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 392
  • DOI: 10.1086/171401

Comparative Direct Analysis of Type Ia Supernova Spectra. V. Insights from a Larger Sample and Quantitative Subclassification
journal, March 2009

  • Branch, David; Dang, Leeann Chau; Baron, E.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 121, Issue 877
  • DOI: 10.1086/597788

Comparative Direct Analysis of Type Ia Supernova Spectra. II. Maximum Light
journal, April 2006

  • Branch, David; Dang, Leeann Chau; Hall, Nicholas
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 118, Issue 842
  • DOI: 10.1086/502778

On the relative frequencies of spectroscopically normal and peculiar type IA supernovae
journal, December 1993

  • Branch, David; Fisher, Adam; Nugent, Peter
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 106
  • DOI: 10.1086/116810

Direct Analysis of Spectra of the Peculiar Type Ia Supernova 2000cx
journal, May 2004

  • Branch, David; Thomas, R. C.; Baron, E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 606, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/382950

Interpreting flux from Broadband Photometry
journal, October 2016


A SWIFT LOOK AT SN 2011fe: THE EARLIEST ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA
journal, June 2012

  • Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; de Pasquale, Massimiliano
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 753, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/753/1/22

ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT CURVES OF SUPERNOVAE WITH THE SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE
journal, April 2009


THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: LIGHT-CURVE FITTING WITH SNooPy
journal, December 2010

  • Burns, Christopher R.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, M. M.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 141, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/1/19

THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: INTRINSIC COLORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, June 2014

  • Burns, Christopher R.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, M. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 789, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/789/1/32

Optical and Infrared Photometry of the Unusual Type Ia Supernova 2000cx
journal, March 2003

  • Candia, P.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 115, Issue 805
  • DOI: 10.1086/368229

Measuring nickel masses in Type Ia supernovae using cobalt emission in nebular phase spectra
journal, October 2015

  • Childress, Michael J.; Hillier, D. John; Seitenzahl, Ivo
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 454, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2173

SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU
journal, May 2013


The Rise Time of Type Ia Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey
journal, September 2006

  • Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Howes, A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 132, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/507788

THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: FIRST PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, January 2010


How the merger of two white dwarfs depends on their mass ratio: orbital stability and detonations at contact: DWD orbital stability and detonations
journal, March 2012


The subluminous, spectroscopically peculiar type IA supernova 1991bg in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4374
journal, October 1992

  • Filippenko, Alexei V.; Richmond, Michael W.; Branch, David
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 104
  • DOI: 10.1086/116339

Double-detonation sub-Chandrasekhar supernovae: can minimum helium shell masses detonate the core?
journal, May 2010


Optical and Infrared Colors of Stars Observed by the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
journal, November 2000

  • Finlator, Kristian; Ivezić, Željko; Fan, Xiaohui
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 120, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1086/316824

The rising light curves of Type Ia supernovae
journal, December 2014

  • Firth, R. E.; Sullivan, M.; Gal-Yam, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2314

Correcting for the Effects of Interstellar Extinction
journal, January 1999

  • Fitzpatrick, Edward L.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 111, Issue 755
  • DOI: 10.1086/316293

SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT
journal, July 2013

  • Folatelli, Gastón; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 773, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/773/1/53

THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST SAMPLE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE-Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, December 2009

  • Folatelli, Gastón; Phillips, M. M.; Burns, Christopher R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 139, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/139/1/120

VERY EARLY ULTRAVIOLET AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig
journal, December 2011


Ultraviolet diversity of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, June 2016

  • Foley, Ryan J.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Brown, P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1440

VELOCITY EVOLUTION AND THE INTRINSIC COLOR OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, November 2011

  • Foley, Ryan J.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Kirshner, Robert P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 742, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/742/2/89

Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant
journal, May 2001

  • Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Gibson, Brad K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 553, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/320638

Spectra of type ia Supernovae from Double Degenerate Mergers
journal, November 2010

  • Fryer, Chris L.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 725, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/725/1/296

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric System
journal, April 1996

  • Fukugita, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Gunn, J. E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 111
  • DOI: 10.1086/117915

The rise-time distribution of nearby Type Ia supernovae: Rise times of nearby SNe Ia
journal, August 2011

  • Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 416, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19213.x

Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Peculiar SN 1999aa
journal, July 2004

  • Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Goobar, A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 128, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/421747

Timescale Stretch Parameterization of Type Ia Supernova B ‐Band Light Curves
journal, September 2001

  • Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D. E.; Kim, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 558, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/322460

THE RISE TIME OF NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, December 2011


Constraints on the Origin of the First Light from sn 2014j
journal, January 2015


Nebular-phase spectra of nearby Type Ia Supernovae
journal, August 2017

  • Graham, M. L.; Kumar, S.; Hosseinzadeh, G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2224

Surface Detonations in Double Degenerate Binary Systems Triggered by Accretion Stream Instabilities
journal, January 2010


The Carnegie Supernova Project: The Low‐Redshift Survey
journal, January 2006

  • Hamuy, Mario; Folatelli, Gastón; Morrell, Nidia I.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 118, Issue 839
  • DOI: 10.1086/500228

THE RISE AND FALL OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES IN THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY
journal, March 2010

  • Hayden, Brian T.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Kessler, Richard
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 712, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/712/1/350

Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations
journal, August 2017


Infrared Spectra of the Subluminous Type Ia Supernova SN 1999by
journal, April 2002

  • Hoflich, Peter; Gerardy, Christopher L.; Fesen, Robert A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 568, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/339063

Explosion Models for Type IA Supernovae: A Comparison with Observed Light Curves, Distances, H 0, and Q 0
journal, February 1996

  • Hoeflich, P.; Khokhlov, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 457
  • DOI: 10.1086/176748

Maximum Brightness and Postmaximum Decline of Light Curves of Type Supernovae Ia: A Comparison of Theory and Observations
journal, December 1996

  • Höflich, Peter; Khokhlov, Alexei; Wheeler, J. Craig
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 472, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/310363

SECONDARY PARAMETERS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES
journal, January 2010


Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor
journal, August 2017

  • Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Sand, David J.; Valenti, Stefano
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 845, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa8402

Type Ia supernovae as stellar endpoints and cosmological tools
journal, June 2011


Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae.
journal, July 1960

  • Hoyle, F.; Fowler, William A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 132
  • DOI: 10.1086/146963

K ‐Corrections and Spectral Templates of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, July 2007

  • Hsiao, E. Y.; Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 663, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/518232

THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA
journal, March 2013


The Carnegie–Chicago Hubble Program. III. The Distance to NGC 1365 via the Tip of the Red Giant Branch
journal, January 2018

  • Jang, In Sung; Hatt, Dylan; Beaton, Rachael L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa9d92

Improved Distances to Type Ia Supernovae with Multicolor Light‐Curve Shapes: MLCS2k2
journal, April 2007

  • Jha, Saurabh; Riess, Adam G.; Kirshner, Robert P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 659, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/512054

Seeing the Collision of a Supernova with its Companion star
journal, December 2009


The Standardizability of Type Ia Supernovae in the Near-Infrared: Evidence for a Peak-Luminosity Versus Decline-Rate Relation in the Near-Infrared
journal, February 2012

  • Kattner, ShiAnne; Leonard, Douglas C.; Burns, Christopher R.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 912
  • DOI: 10.1086/664734

Infectious Diseases
journal, July 1993


Robotic Observations of the Sky with TAROT: 2004–2007
journal, December 2008

  • Klotz, A.; Boër, M.; Eysseric, J.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 120, Issue 874
  • DOI: 10.1086/596022

Erratum: “The Carnegie Supernova Project. I. Third Photometry Data Release of Low-redshift Type Ia Supernovae and Other White Dwarf Explosions” (2017, AJ, 154, 211)
journal, December 2017

  • Krisciunas, Kevin; Contreras, Carlos; Burns, Christopher R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-3881/aa9a3d

HEAD-ON COLLISIONS OF WHITE DWARFS IN TRIPLE SYSTEMS COULD EXPLAIN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, November 2013


UBVRI photometric standard stars in the magnitude range 11.5-16.0 around the celestial equator
journal, July 1992

  • Landolt, Arlo U.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 104
  • DOI: 10.1086/116242

SN 1991bg - A type IA supernova with a difference
journal, January 1993

  • Leibundgut, Bruno; Kirshner, Robert P.; Phillips, Mark M.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 105
  • DOI: 10.1086/116427

SN 2002cx: The Most Peculiar Known Type Ia Supernova
journal, April 2003

  • Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Chornock, Ryan
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 115, Issue 806
  • DOI: 10.1086/374200

The Unique Type Ia Supernova 2000cx in NGC 524
journal, October 2001

  • Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Gates, Elinor
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 113, Issue 788
  • DOI: 10.1086/323355

A High Intrinsic Peculiarity Rate among Type Ia Supernovae
journal, January 2001

  • Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Treffers, Richard R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 546, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/318299

THE SUPERNOVA DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TYPE-Ia PROGENITORS AND METAL ENRICHMENT
journal, October 2010


HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig
journal, October 2013


Spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova 2012fr★
journal, May 2013

  • Maund, J. R.; Spyromilio, J.; Höflich, P. A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 433, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slt050

High-Velocity Features: A Ubiquitous Property of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, March 2005

  • Mazzali, P. A.; Benetti, S.; Altavilla, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 623, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/429874

Nebular spectra and abundance tomography of the Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe: a normal SN Ia with a stable Fe core
journal, May 2015

  • Mazzali, P. A.; Sullivan, M.; Filippenko, A. V.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv761

Abundance Ratios and Galactic Chemical Evolution
journal, September 1997


Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing
journal, January 2018


Light Curves of Core-Collapse Supernovae with Substantial mass loss Using the new Open-Source Supernova Explosion code (Snec)
journal, November 2015

  • Morozova, Viktoriya; Piro, Anthony L.; Renzo, Mathieu
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 814, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/814/1/63

The properties of NI to CO to Fe decay
journal, June 1994

  • Nadyozhin, D. K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 92
  • DOI: 10.1086/192008

Early light curves for Type Ia supernova explosion models
journal, August 2017

  • Noebauer, U. M.; Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 472, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2093

Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon–oxygen white dwarf star
journal, December 2011

  • Nugent, Peter E.; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S. Bradley
  • Nature, Vol. 480, Issue 7377
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10644

No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in three type Ia supernovae
journal, May 2015

  • Olling, Rob P.; Mushotzky, Richard; Shaya, Edward J.
  • Nature, Vol. 521, Issue 7552
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature14455

NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM VIOLENT MERGERS OF WHITE DWARF BINARIES
journal, February 2012


Spectrophotometric time series of SN 2011fe from the Nearby Supernova Factory
journal, June 2013


A New System of Faint Near-Infrared Standard Stars
journal, November 1998

  • Persson, S. E.; Murphy, D. C.; Krzeminski, W.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 116, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1086/300607

FourStar: The Near-Infrared Imager for the 6.5 m Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory
journal, June 2013

  • Persson, S. E.; Murphy, D. C.; Smee, S.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 125, Issue 928
  • DOI: 10.1086/671164

The absolute magnitudes of Type IA supernovae
journal, August 1993

  • Phillips, M. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 413
  • DOI: 10.1086/186970

The Reddening-Free Decline Rate Versus Luminosity Relationship for Type [CLC]Ia[/CLC] Supernovae
journal, October 1999

  • Phillips, M. M.; Lira, Paulina; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 118, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/301032

ON THE SOURCE OF THE DUST EXTINCTION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THE DISCOVERY OF ANOMALOUSLY STRONG Na I ABSORPTION
journal, November 2013


SN 1991T - Further evidence of the heterogeneous nature of type IA supernovae
journal, May 1992

  • Phillips, M. M.; Wells, Lisa A.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 103
  • DOI: 10.1086/116177

A Stellar Spectral Flux Library: 1150–25000 Å
journal, July 1998

  • Pickles, A. J. 
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 110, Issue 749
  • DOI: 10.1086/316197

SHOCK BREAKOUT FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA
journal, December 2009


Exploring the Potential Diversity of Early type ia Supernova Light Curves
journal, July 2016


What can we Learn from the Rising Light Curves of Radioactively Powered Supernovae?
journal, May 2013


CONSTRAINTS ON SHALLOW 56 Ni FROM THE EARLY LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, March 2014


Photometric calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope: Photometric calibration of the Swift UVOT
journal, December 2007


SN 2005hj: Evidence for Two Classes of Normal‐Bright SNe Ia and Implications for Cosmology
journal, September 2007

  • Quimby, Robert; Hoflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. Craig
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 666, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/520527

On Type Ia supernovae from the collisions of two white dwarfs
journal, October 2009

  • Raskin, Cody; Timmes, F. X.; Scannapieco, Evan
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 399, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2009.00743.x

Is there an Indication of Evolution of Type [CLC]Ia[/CLC] Supernovae from their Rise Times?
journal, December 1999

  • Riess, Adam G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 118, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1086/301144

A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant
journal, July 2016

  • Riess, Adam G.; Macri, Lucas M.; Hoffmann, Samantha L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 826, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/826/1/56

COLLISIONS OF WHITE DWARFS AS A NEW PROGENITOR CHANNEL FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, October 2009


Modeling the iron-dominated spectra of the type IA supernova SN 1991T at premaximum
journal, March 1992

  • Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Cappellaro, E.; Turatto, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 387
  • DOI: 10.1086/186299

Type Ia supernova bolometric light curves and ejected mass estimates from the Nearby Supernova Factory
journal, March 2014

  • Scalzo, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 440, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu350

Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds
journal, June 1998

  • Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 500, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305772

THE YOUNG AND BRIGHT TYPE IA SUPERNOVA ASASSN-14lp: DISCOVERY, EARLY-TIME OBSERVATIONS, FIRST-LIGHT TIME, DISTANCE TO NGC 4666, AND PROGENITOR CONSTRAINTS
journal, July 2016


The Long-Term Evolution of Double White Dwarf Mergers
journal, March 2012


Sub-Chandrasekhar-mass White Dwarf Detonations Revisited
journal, February 2018

  • Shen, Ken J.; Kasen, Daniel; Miles, Broxton J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 854, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaa8de

Berkeley Supernova Ia Program - II. Initial analysis of spectra obtained near maximum brightness: BSNIP II: initial spectral analysis
journal, August 2012

  • Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Kong, Jason J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 425, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21269.x

SN 2000cx and SN 2013bh: extremely rare, nearly twin Type Ia supernovae
journal, September 2013

  • Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Vinko, Jozsef; Kasliwal, Mansi M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 436, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1647

Detonations in Sub-Chandrasekhar-Mass c+o White Dwarfs
journal, April 2010


DAOPHOT - A computer program for crowded-field stellar photometry
journal, March 1987

  • Stetson, Peter B.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 99
  • DOI: 10.1086/131977

Optical Photometry of the Type I[CLC]a[/CLC] Supernova 1999[CLC]ee[/CLC] and the Type I[CLC]b[/CLC]/[CLC]c[/CLC] Supernova 1999[CLC]ex[/CLC] in IC 5179
journal, October 2002

  • Stritzinger, Maximilian; Hamuy, Mario; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 124, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/342544

Lower limits on the Hubble constant from models of type Ia supernovae
journal, February 2005


An Atlas of Spectrophotometric Landolt Standard Stars
journal, August 2005

  • Stritzinger, Maximilian; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Hamuy, Mario
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 117, Issue 834
  • DOI: 10.1086/431468

THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: SECOND PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, October 2011

  • Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, M. M.; Boldt, Luis N.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 142, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/142/5/156

The observations of Type Ia supernovae
conference, January 2000

  • Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
  • The tenth astrophysics conference: Cosmic explosions, AIP Conference Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1291696

On the Geometry of the High‐Velocity Ejecta of the Peculiar Type Ia Supernova 2000cx
journal, February 2004

  • Thomas, R. C.; Branch, David; Baron, E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 601, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/380632

Stellar lifetimes and abundance ratios in chemical evolution
journal, May 1979

  • Tinsley, B. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 229
  • DOI: 10.1086/157039

Delay Time Distribution Measurement of Type Ia Supernovae by the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey and Implications for the Progenitor
journal, December 2008

  • Totani, Tomonori; Morokuma, Tomoki; Oda, Takeshi
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 60, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/60.6.1327

The properties of the peculiar type Ia supernova 1991bg -- I. Analysis and discussion of two years of observations
journal, October 1996

  • Turatto, M.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 283, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/283.1.1

IMPROVED DISTANCES TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH TWO SPECTROSCOPIC SUBCLASSES
journal, June 2009


THE GOLDEN STANDARD TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2005cf: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE ULTRAVIOLET TO THE NEAR-INFRARED WAVEBANDS
journal, May 2009


Sub-Chandrasekhar mass models for Type IA supernovae
journal, March 1994

  • Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, Thomas A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 423
  • DOI: 10.1086/173813

OPTICAL AND ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE NARROW-LINED TYPE Ia SN 2012fr IN NGC 1365
journal, May 2014


Estimating the First-Light time of the type ia Supernova 2014j in m82
journal, February 2014


THE VERY YOUNG TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2013dy: DISCOVERY, AND STRONG CARBON ABSORPTION IN EARLY-TIME SPECTRA
journal, November 2013

  • Zheng, WeiKang; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 778, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/778/1/L15

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Discovery and progenitor constraints on the Type Ia supernova 2013gy
    journal, July 2019


    ASASSN-15pz: Revealing Significant Photometric Diversity among 2009dc-like, Peculiar SNe Ia
    journal, July 2019


    Discovery and progenitor constraints on the Type Ia supernova 2013gy
    journal, July 2019


    ASASSN-15pz: Revealing Significant Photometric Diversity among 2009dc-like, Peculiar SNe Ia
    journal, July 2019