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Title: Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star

Abstract

Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining. Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occurmore » in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability. That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
OSTI Identifier:
1456982
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 551; Journal Issue: 7679
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Arcavi, Iair, Howell, D. Andrew, Kasen, Daniel, Bildsten, Lars, Hosseinzadeh, Griffin, McCully, Curtis, Wong, Zheng Chuen, Katz, Sarah Rebekah, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Sollerman, Jesper, Taddia, Francesco, Leloudas, Giorgos, Fremling, Christoffer, Nugent, Peter E., Horesh, Assaf, Mooley, Kunal, Rumsey, Clare, Cenko, S. Bradley, Graham, Melissa L., Perley, Daniel A., Nakar, Ehud, Shaviv, Nir J., Bromberg, Omer, Shen, Ken J., Ofek, Eran O., Cao, Yi, Wang, Xiaofeng, Huang, Fang, Rui, Liming, Zhang, Tianmeng, Li, Wenxiong, Li, Zhitong, Zhang, Jujia, Valenti, Stefano, Guevel, David, Shappee, Benjamin, Kochanek, Christopher S., Holoien, Thomas W. -S., Filippenko, Alexei V., Fender, Rob, Nyholm, Anders, Yaron, Ofer, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Sullivan, Mark, Blagorodnova, Nadja, Walters, Richard S., Lunnan, Ragnhild, Khazov, Danny, Andreoni, Igor, Laher, Russ R., Konidaris, Nick, Wozniak, Przemek, and Bue, Brian. Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nature24030.
Arcavi, Iair, Howell, D. Andrew, Kasen, Daniel, Bildsten, Lars, Hosseinzadeh, Griffin, McCully, Curtis, Wong, Zheng Chuen, Katz, Sarah Rebekah, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Sollerman, Jesper, Taddia, Francesco, Leloudas, Giorgos, Fremling, Christoffer, Nugent, Peter E., Horesh, Assaf, Mooley, Kunal, Rumsey, Clare, Cenko, S. Bradley, Graham, Melissa L., Perley, Daniel A., Nakar, Ehud, Shaviv, Nir J., Bromberg, Omer, Shen, Ken J., Ofek, Eran O., Cao, Yi, Wang, Xiaofeng, Huang, Fang, Rui, Liming, Zhang, Tianmeng, Li, Wenxiong, Li, Zhitong, Zhang, Jujia, Valenti, Stefano, Guevel, David, Shappee, Benjamin, Kochanek, Christopher S., Holoien, Thomas W. -S., Filippenko, Alexei V., Fender, Rob, Nyholm, Anders, Yaron, Ofer, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Sullivan, Mark, Blagorodnova, Nadja, Walters, Richard S., Lunnan, Ragnhild, Khazov, Danny, Andreoni, Igor, Laher, Russ R., Konidaris, Nick, Wozniak, Przemek, & Bue, Brian. Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star. United States. doi:10.1038/nature24030.
Arcavi, Iair, Howell, D. Andrew, Kasen, Daniel, Bildsten, Lars, Hosseinzadeh, Griffin, McCully, Curtis, Wong, Zheng Chuen, Katz, Sarah Rebekah, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Sollerman, Jesper, Taddia, Francesco, Leloudas, Giorgos, Fremling, Christoffer, Nugent, Peter E., Horesh, Assaf, Mooley, Kunal, Rumsey, Clare, Cenko, S. Bradley, Graham, Melissa L., Perley, Daniel A., Nakar, Ehud, Shaviv, Nir J., Bromberg, Omer, Shen, Ken J., Ofek, Eran O., Cao, Yi, Wang, Xiaofeng, Huang, Fang, Rui, Liming, Zhang, Tianmeng, Li, Wenxiong, Li, Zhitong, Zhang, Jujia, Valenti, Stefano, Guevel, David, Shappee, Benjamin, Kochanek, Christopher S., Holoien, Thomas W. -S., Filippenko, Alexei V., Fender, Rob, Nyholm, Anders, Yaron, Ofer, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Sullivan, Mark, Blagorodnova, Nadja, Walters, Richard S., Lunnan, Ragnhild, Khazov, Danny, Andreoni, Igor, Laher, Russ R., Konidaris, Nick, Wozniak, Przemek, and Bue, Brian. Wed . "Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star". United States. doi:10.1038/nature24030.
@article{osti_1456982,
title = {Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star},
author = {Arcavi, Iair and Howell, D. Andrew and Kasen, Daniel and Bildsten, Lars and Hosseinzadeh, Griffin and McCully, Curtis and Wong, Zheng Chuen and Katz, Sarah Rebekah and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Sollerman, Jesper and Taddia, Francesco and Leloudas, Giorgos and Fremling, Christoffer and Nugent, Peter E. and Horesh, Assaf and Mooley, Kunal and Rumsey, Clare and Cenko, S. Bradley and Graham, Melissa L. and Perley, Daniel A. and Nakar, Ehud and Shaviv, Nir J. and Bromberg, Omer and Shen, Ken J. and Ofek, Eran O. and Cao, Yi and Wang, Xiaofeng and Huang, Fang and Rui, Liming and Zhang, Tianmeng and Li, Wenxiong and Li, Zhitong and Zhang, Jujia and Valenti, Stefano and Guevel, David and Shappee, Benjamin and Kochanek, Christopher S. and Holoien, Thomas W. -S. and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Fender, Rob and Nyholm, Anders and Yaron, Ofer and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Sullivan, Mark and Blagorodnova, Nadja and Walters, Richard S. and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Khazov, Danny and Andreoni, Igor and Laher, Russ R. and Konidaris, Nick and Wozniak, Przemek and Bue, Brian},
abstractNote = {Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining. Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability. That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.},
doi = {10.1038/nature24030},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7679,
volume = 551,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Nov 08 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Nov 08 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}