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Title: Electronic and transport properties of Li-doped NiO epitaxial thin films

Abstract

NiO is a p-type wide bandgap semiconductor of use in various electronic devices ranging from solar cells to transparent transistors. Understanding and improving its optical and transport properties have been of considerable interest. In this work, we have investigated the effect of Li doping on the electronic, optical and transport properties of NiO epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. We show that Li doping significantly increases the p-type conductivity of NiO, but all the films have relatively low room-temperature mobilities (<0.05 cm2 V -1s -1). The conduction mechanism is better described by small-polaron hoping model in the temperature range of 200 K < T <330 K, and variable range hopping at T <200 K. A combination of x-ray photoemission and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopic investigations reveal that the Fermi level gradually shifts toward the valence band maximum (VBM) and a new hole state develops with Li doping. Both the VBM and hole states are composed of primarily Zhang-Rice bound states, which accounts for the small polaron character (low mobility) of hole conduction. Our work provides guidelines for the search for p-type oxide materials and device optimization.NiO is a p-type wide bandgap semiconductor of use in various electronicmore » devices ranging from solar cells to transparent transistors. This work reports the controlling of conductivity and increase of work functions by Li doping.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [7]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Xiamen University; Xiamen 361005; P. R. China
  2. Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy; University of Cambridge; Cambridge; UK
  3. Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik; DE-10117 Berlin; Germany
  4. Physical Sciences Division; Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Richland; USA
  5. Materials Science & Engineering; Binghamton University; Binghamton; USA
  6. Diamond Light Source Ltd.; Harwell Science and Innovation Campus; Didcot; UK
  7. Department of Physics; University of Liverpool; Liverpool L69 3BX; UK
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1455308
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-132898
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7526; JMCCCX; 50084; KC0203020
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Chemistry C; Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 9
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
oxide semiconductor; hole transport layer; NiO; Transparent conducting oxides; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Zhang, J. Y., Li, W. W., Hoye, R. L. Z., MacManus-Driscoll, J. L., Budde, M., Bierwagen, O., Wang, L., Du, Y., Wahila, M. J., Piper, L. F. J., Lee, T. -L., Edwards, H. J., Dhanak, V. R., and Zhang, K. H. L. Electronic and transport properties of Li-doped NiO epitaxial thin films. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1039/c7tc05331b.
Zhang, J. Y., Li, W. W., Hoye, R. L. Z., MacManus-Driscoll, J. L., Budde, M., Bierwagen, O., Wang, L., Du, Y., Wahila, M. J., Piper, L. F. J., Lee, T. -L., Edwards, H. J., Dhanak, V. R., & Zhang, K. H. L. Electronic and transport properties of Li-doped NiO epitaxial thin films. United States. doi:10.1039/c7tc05331b.
Zhang, J. Y., Li, W. W., Hoye, R. L. Z., MacManus-Driscoll, J. L., Budde, M., Bierwagen, O., Wang, L., Du, Y., Wahila, M. J., Piper, L. F. J., Lee, T. -L., Edwards, H. J., Dhanak, V. R., and Zhang, K. H. L. Mon . "Electronic and transport properties of Li-doped NiO epitaxial thin films". United States. doi:10.1039/c7tc05331b.
@article{osti_1455308,
title = {Electronic and transport properties of Li-doped NiO epitaxial thin films},
author = {Zhang, J. Y. and Li, W. W. and Hoye, R. L. Z. and MacManus-Driscoll, J. L. and Budde, M. and Bierwagen, O. and Wang, L. and Du, Y. and Wahila, M. J. and Piper, L. F. J. and Lee, T. -L. and Edwards, H. J. and Dhanak, V. R. and Zhang, K. H. L.},
abstractNote = {NiO is a p-type wide bandgap semiconductor of use in various electronic devices ranging from solar cells to transparent transistors. Understanding and improving its optical and transport properties have been of considerable interest. In this work, we have investigated the effect of Li doping on the electronic, optical and transport properties of NiO epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. We show that Li doping significantly increases the p-type conductivity of NiO, but all the films have relatively low room-temperature mobilities (<0.05 cm2 V-1s-1). The conduction mechanism is better described by small-polaron hoping model in the temperature range of 200 K < T <330 K, and variable range hopping at T <200 K. A combination of x-ray photoemission and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopic investigations reveal that the Fermi level gradually shifts toward the valence band maximum (VBM) and a new hole state develops with Li doping. Both the VBM and hole states are composed of primarily Zhang-Rice bound states, which accounts for the small polaron character (low mobility) of hole conduction. Our work provides guidelines for the search for p-type oxide materials and device optimization.NiO is a p-type wide bandgap semiconductor of use in various electronic devices ranging from solar cells to transparent transistors. This work reports the controlling of conductivity and increase of work functions by Li doping.},
doi = {10.1039/c7tc05331b},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry C},
number = 9,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2018},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2018}
}