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Title: Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices

Abstract

The modification of geometry and interactions in two-dimensional magnetic nanosystems has enabled a range of studies addressing the magnetic order, collective low-energy dynamics and emergent magnetic properties in, for example, artificial spin-ice structures. The common denominator of all these investigations is the use of Ising-like mesospins as building blocks, in the form of elongated magnetic islands. Here, we introduce a new approach: single interaction modifiers, using slave mesospins in the form of discs, within which the mesospin is free to rotate in the disc plane1. We show that by placing these on the vertices of square artificial spin-ice arrays and varying their diameter, it is possible to tailor the strength and the ratio of the interaction energies. We demonstrate the existence of degenerate ice-rule-obeying states in square artificial spin-ice structures, enabling the exploration of thermal dynamics in a spin-liquid manifold. Furthermore, we even observe the emergence of flux lattices on larger length scales, when the energy landscape of the vertices is reversed. In conclusion, the work highlights the potential of a design strategy for two-dimensional magnetic nano-architectures, through which mixed dimensionality of mesospins can be used to promote thermally emergent mesoscale magnetic states.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)
  2. Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1454821
Report Number(s):
BNL-205753-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473; TRN: US1901156
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; artificial spin ice; nanomagnetism

Citation Formats

Ostman, Erik, Stopfel, Henry, Chioar, Ioan -Augustin, Arnalds, Unnar B., Stein, Aaron, Kapaklis, Vassilios, and Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin. Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0027-2.
Ostman, Erik, Stopfel, Henry, Chioar, Ioan -Augustin, Arnalds, Unnar B., Stein, Aaron, Kapaklis, Vassilios, & Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin. Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices. United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0027-2.
Ostman, Erik, Stopfel, Henry, Chioar, Ioan -Augustin, Arnalds, Unnar B., Stein, Aaron, Kapaklis, Vassilios, and Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin. Mon . "Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices". United States. doi:10.1038/s41567-017-0027-2. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1454821.
@article{osti_1454821,
title = {Interaction modifiers in artificial spin ices},
author = {Ostman, Erik and Stopfel, Henry and Chioar, Ioan -Augustin and Arnalds, Unnar B. and Stein, Aaron and Kapaklis, Vassilios and Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin},
abstractNote = {The modification of geometry and interactions in two-dimensional magnetic nanosystems has enabled a range of studies addressing the magnetic order, collective low-energy dynamics and emergent magnetic properties in, for example, artificial spin-ice structures. The common denominator of all these investigations is the use of Ising-like mesospins as building blocks, in the form of elongated magnetic islands. Here, we introduce a new approach: single interaction modifiers, using slave mesospins in the form of discs, within which the mesospin is free to rotate in the disc plane1. We show that by placing these on the vertices of square artificial spin-ice arrays and varying their diameter, it is possible to tailor the strength and the ratio of the interaction energies. We demonstrate the existence of degenerate ice-rule-obeying states in square artificial spin-ice structures, enabling the exploration of thermal dynamics in a spin-liquid manifold. Furthermore, we even observe the emergence of flux lattices on larger length scales, when the energy landscape of the vertices is reversed. In conclusion, the work highlights the potential of a design strategy for two-dimensional magnetic nano-architectures, through which mixed dimensionality of mesospins can be used to promote thermally emergent mesoscale magnetic states.},
doi = {10.1038/s41567-017-0027-2},
journal = {Nature Physics},
issn = {1745-2473},
number = 4,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

Journal Article:
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Cited by: 10 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 | Schematics of the SASI and mSASI lattices shown together with their vertex types Fig. 1 | Schematics of the SASI and mSASI lattices shown together with their vertex types: a,b, Illustration of a SASI (a) and an mSASI (b) lattice. Real-space base vectors defining the square lattice together with the base (red islands) are shown in a together with the discrete latticemore » points (black dots). The lattice parameter $α$ is defined as $α$ = || a1 || = || a2 ||. The length of the islands is l = 450 nm and their width is $w$ = 150 nm. c, The four different vertex types with their respective energies, $E$, and degeneracy, $z$. In $T$II and $T$III vertices, the XY-like spins of the discs have a well-defined direction due to the residual stray field. In $T$I and $T$IV vertices, the XY spins exhibit weak four-fold degeneracy (in the collinear approximation11).« less

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Works referenced in this record:

Thermal fluctuations in artificial spin ice
journal, June 2014

  • Kapaklis, Vassilios; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Farhan, Alan
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 7, p. 514-519
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.104