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Title: Production of monodisperse cerium oxide microspheres with diameters near 100 µm by internal-gelation sol–gel methods

Abstract

Cerium dioxide microspheres with uniform diameters between 65 – 211 µm were fabricated using internal gelation sol-gel methods. Although uniform microspheres are produced for nuclear fuel applications with diameters above 300 µm, sol-gel microspheres with diameters of 50 - 200 µm have historically been made by emulsion techniques and had poor size uniformity [1, 2]. An internal gelation, sol-gel apparatus was designed and constructed to accommodate the production of small, uniform microspheres whereby cerium-containing solutions were dispersed into flowing silicone oil and heated in a gelation column to initiate solidification [3, 4]. Problems with premature feed gelation and microsphere coalescence were overcome by equipment modifications unique among known internal gelation setups. Microspheres were fabricated and sized in batches as a function of dispersing needle diameter and silicone oil flow rate in the two-fluid nozzle in order to determine the range of sizes possible and corresponding degree of monodispersity. Initial experiments with poor size uniformity were linked to microsphere coalescence in the gelation column prior to solidification as well as excessive flow rates for the cerium feed solution. Average diameter standard deviations as low as 2.23% were observed after optimization of flow rates and minimization of coalescence reactions.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1452865
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-129642
Journal ID: ISSN 0928-0707
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0928-0707
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
cerium oxide; internal gelation; microsphere; nuclear fuel; plutonium-238; sol-gel; uranium oxide

Citation Formats

Katalenich, Jeffrey A., Kitchen, Brian B., and Pierson, Bruce D. Production of monodisperse cerium oxide microspheres with diameters near 100 µm by internal-gelation sol–gel methods. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s10971-018-4641-y.
Katalenich, Jeffrey A., Kitchen, Brian B., & Pierson, Bruce D. Production of monodisperse cerium oxide microspheres with diameters near 100 µm by internal-gelation sol–gel methods. United States. doi:10.1007/s10971-018-4641-y.
Katalenich, Jeffrey A., Kitchen, Brian B., and Pierson, Bruce D. Tue . "Production of monodisperse cerium oxide microspheres with diameters near 100 µm by internal-gelation sol–gel methods". United States. doi:10.1007/s10971-018-4641-y.
@article{osti_1452865,
title = {Production of monodisperse cerium oxide microspheres with diameters near 100 µm by internal-gelation sol–gel methods},
author = {Katalenich, Jeffrey A. and Kitchen, Brian B. and Pierson, Bruce D.},
abstractNote = {Cerium dioxide microspheres with uniform diameters between 65 – 211 µm were fabricated using internal gelation sol-gel methods. Although uniform microspheres are produced for nuclear fuel applications with diameters above 300 µm, sol-gel microspheres with diameters of 50 - 200 µm have historically been made by emulsion techniques and had poor size uniformity [1, 2]. An internal gelation, sol-gel apparatus was designed and constructed to accommodate the production of small, uniform microspheres whereby cerium-containing solutions were dispersed into flowing silicone oil and heated in a gelation column to initiate solidification [3, 4]. Problems with premature feed gelation and microsphere coalescence were overcome by equipment modifications unique among known internal gelation setups. Microspheres were fabricated and sized in batches as a function of dispersing needle diameter and silicone oil flow rate in the two-fluid nozzle in order to determine the range of sizes possible and corresponding degree of monodispersity. Initial experiments with poor size uniformity were linked to microsphere coalescence in the gelation column prior to solidification as well as excessive flow rates for the cerium feed solution. Average diameter standard deviations as low as 2.23% were observed after optimization of flow rates and minimization of coalescence reactions.},
doi = {10.1007/s10971-018-4641-y},
journal = {Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology},
issn = {0928-0707},
number = 2,
volume = 86,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}