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Title: Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

Abstract

The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal subsystem loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below -10 degrees C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency.more » The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Mahle Behr Troy Inc.
  3. FCA US LLC
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1440732
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5400-71288
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the SAE CO2 Reduction for Transportation Systems Conference, 6-8 June 2018, Turin, Italy
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; total thermal management; battery electric vehicles; BEVs

Citation Formats

Lustbader, Jason A, Rugh, John P, Winkler, Jonathan M, Titov, Eugene V, Chowdhury, Sourav, Leitzel, Lindsey, Zima, Mark, Santacesaria, Mark, Khawaja, Aamir, and Govindarajalu, Murali. Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.4271/2018-37-0026.
Lustbader, Jason A, Rugh, John P, Winkler, Jonathan M, Titov, Eugene V, Chowdhury, Sourav, Leitzel, Lindsey, Zima, Mark, Santacesaria, Mark, Khawaja, Aamir, & Govindarajalu, Murali. Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). United States. doi:10.4271/2018-37-0026.
Lustbader, Jason A, Rugh, John P, Winkler, Jonathan M, Titov, Eugene V, Chowdhury, Sourav, Leitzel, Lindsey, Zima, Mark, Santacesaria, Mark, Khawaja, Aamir, and Govindarajalu, Murali. Thu . "Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)". United States. doi:10.4271/2018-37-0026. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1440732.
@article{osti_1440732,
title = {Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)},
author = {Lustbader, Jason A and Rugh, John P and Winkler, Jonathan M and Titov, Eugene V and Chowdhury, Sourav and Leitzel, Lindsey and Zima, Mark and Santacesaria, Mark and Khawaja, Aamir and Govindarajalu, Murali},
abstractNote = {The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal subsystem loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below -10 degrees C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs. Demonstrated on a 2015 Fiat 500e BEV, this system integrates a semi-hermetic refrigeration loop with a coolant network and serves three functions: (1) heating and/or cooling vehicle traction components (battery, power electronics, and motor) (2) heating and cooling of the cabin, and (3) waste energy harvesting and re-use. The modes of operation allow a heat pump and air conditioning system to function without reversing the refrigeration cycle to improve thermal efficiency. The refrigeration loop consists of an electric compressor, a thermal expansion valve, a coolant-cooled condenser, and a chiller, the latter two exchanging heat with hot and cold coolant streams that may be directed to various components of the thermal system. The coolant-based heat distribution is adaptable and saves significant amounts of refrigerant per vehicle. Also, a coolant-based system reduces refrigerant emissions by requiring fewer refrigerant pipe joints. The authors present bench-level test data and simulation analysis and describe a preliminary control scheme for this system.},
doi = {10.4271/2018-37-0026},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Conference:
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