skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Microalgae Feedstocks for Aviation Fuels

Abstract

There is significant global interest in developing, testing, and using alternative jet fuels for both commercial and military use in an effort to create a sustainable and stable fuel supply while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the aviation industry is entirely dependent on a finite-supply of petroleum based fuel sourced in part by politically and economically unstable regions of the world. Commercial jet fuel use within the contiguous United States (CONUS) was 17.8 billion gallons per year (BGY) in 2009, while jet fuel use in 2010 by the U.S. Air Force (USAF), Navy, and Army was 1.5 BGY, 0.6 BGY, and 0.8 BGY, respectively (Carter et al., 2011). U.S. commercial and military aviation sectors have set ambitious near-term alternative fuel and environmental performance targets. This includes a tentative Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) goal of 1 BGY alternative fuel use by commercial aircraft by 2018. The USAF has set a target of 50% for USAF domestic aviation via alternative fuels by 2016 (0.73 BGY), and 50% of the Navy’s total energy consumption afloat (0.3 BGY) will come from alternative fuels by 2020 (Carter et al., 2011). If these targets become policy, at least 2 BGY of domestically-produced alternative jet fuel willmore » be required by 2020. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established production requirements for domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). For example, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel must be produced by 2022, of which 21 billion gallons shall be advanced biofuels. EISA defines advanced biofuels as non-corn starch derived biofuels having lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions 50% lower than gasoline. There a number of potential fuel pathways for meeting the RFS. One of these is biomass-based diesel, including jet fuel (Schnepf and Yacobucci, 2013). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) has a stated goal in its 2013 Multi-Year Program Plan (USDOE, 2013) to support the RFS through development of “…commercially viable biomass utilization technologies to encourage the creation of a new domestic bioenergy industry…”. BETO has also recognized the potential for aviation biofuels to support the bioenergy industry, seeing drop-in bio-based jet fuels one of the viable alternatives for the aviation industry and the military to meet their ambitious near-term GHG reduction targets (USDOE, 2014). One of the important Multi-year Program Plan Targets (USDOE, 2013) is to establish feedstock resource assessment models to evaluate the geographic, economic, quality and environmental criteria for which 20 million metric tons of ash free dry weight (AFDW) algal biomass can be produced by 2022. Toward meeting the EISA requirements, algal biofuels may offer a number of advantages. They can produce a range of biofuel feedstocks suitable for diesel and aviation fuels. Microalgae, on a strain-specific basis, can be cultivated using impaired water including saline, and/or brackish pumped groundwater or seawater, treated industrial wastewater, municipal sewage effluent, and produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations. Additionally, microalgae require nitrogen and phosphates as essential nutrients and could provide water treatment co-benefits to municipalities, industry, and the environment.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1440644
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-129394
BM0108010
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Related Information: Green Aviation: Reduction of Environmental Impact Through Aircraft Technology and Alternative Fuels
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
algae; microalgae; biofuels; aviation fuels; greenhouse gas emission; GHG; biomass assessment tool

Citation Formats

Wigmosta, Mark S., Coleman, Andre, Venteris, Erik, and Skaggs, Richard. Microalgae Feedstocks for Aviation Fuels. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Wigmosta, Mark S., Coleman, Andre, Venteris, Erik, & Skaggs, Richard. Microalgae Feedstocks for Aviation Fuels. United States.
Wigmosta, Mark S., Coleman, Andre, Venteris, Erik, and Skaggs, Richard. Thu . "Microalgae Feedstocks for Aviation Fuels". United States.
@article{osti_1440644,
title = {Microalgae Feedstocks for Aviation Fuels},
author = {Wigmosta, Mark S. and Coleman, Andre and Venteris, Erik and Skaggs, Richard},
abstractNote = {There is significant global interest in developing, testing, and using alternative jet fuels for both commercial and military use in an effort to create a sustainable and stable fuel supply while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the aviation industry is entirely dependent on a finite-supply of petroleum based fuel sourced in part by politically and economically unstable regions of the world. Commercial jet fuel use within the contiguous United States (CONUS) was 17.8 billion gallons per year (BGY) in 2009, while jet fuel use in 2010 by the U.S. Air Force (USAF), Navy, and Army was 1.5 BGY, 0.6 BGY, and 0.8 BGY, respectively (Carter et al., 2011). U.S. commercial and military aviation sectors have set ambitious near-term alternative fuel and environmental performance targets. This includes a tentative Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) goal of 1 BGY alternative fuel use by commercial aircraft by 2018. The USAF has set a target of 50% for USAF domestic aviation via alternative fuels by 2016 (0.73 BGY), and 50% of the Navy’s total energy consumption afloat (0.3 BGY) will come from alternative fuels by 2020 (Carter et al., 2011). If these targets become policy, at least 2 BGY of domestically-produced alternative jet fuel will be required by 2020. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established production requirements for domestic alternative fuels under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). For example, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel must be produced by 2022, of which 21 billion gallons shall be advanced biofuels. EISA defines advanced biofuels as non-corn starch derived biofuels having lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions 50% lower than gasoline. There a number of potential fuel pathways for meeting the RFS. One of these is biomass-based diesel, including jet fuel (Schnepf and Yacobucci, 2013). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) has a stated goal in its 2013 Multi-Year Program Plan (USDOE, 2013) to support the RFS through development of “…commercially viable biomass utilization technologies to encourage the creation of a new domestic bioenergy industry…”. BETO has also recognized the potential for aviation biofuels to support the bioenergy industry, seeing drop-in bio-based jet fuels one of the viable alternatives for the aviation industry and the military to meet their ambitious near-term GHG reduction targets (USDOE, 2014). One of the important Multi-year Program Plan Targets (USDOE, 2013) is to establish feedstock resource assessment models to evaluate the geographic, economic, quality and environmental criteria for which 20 million metric tons of ash free dry weight (AFDW) algal biomass can be produced by 2022. Toward meeting the EISA requirements, algal biofuels may offer a number of advantages. They can produce a range of biofuel feedstocks suitable for diesel and aviation fuels. Microalgae, on a strain-specific basis, can be cultivated using impaired water including saline, and/or brackish pumped groundwater or seawater, treated industrial wastewater, municipal sewage effluent, and produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations. Additionally, microalgae require nitrogen and phosphates as essential nutrients and could provide water treatment co-benefits to municipalities, industry, and the environment.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Book:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this book.

Save / Share: