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Title: Gas Retention, Gas Release, and Fluidization of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) Ion Exchange Resin

Abstract

The Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) is being developed to provide treated supernatant liquid from the Hanford tank farms directly to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The design and development of the LAWPS is being conducted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC. A key process in LAWPS is the removal of radioactive Cs in ion exchange (IX) columns filled with spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. When loaded with radioactive Cs, radiolysis of water in the LAW liquid will generate hydrogen gas. In normal operations, the generated hydrogen is expected to remain dissolved in the liquid and be continuously removed by liquid flow. One accident scenario being evaluated is the loss of liquid flow through the sRF resin bed after it has been loaded with radioactive Cs and hydrogen gas is being generated by radiolysis. For an accident scenario with a loss of flow, hydrogen gas can be retained within the IX column both in the sRF resin bed and below the bottom screen that supports the resin within the column, which creates a hydrogen flammability hazard. Because there is a potential for a large fraction of the retained hydrogen to bemore » released over a short duration as a gas release event, there is a need to quantify the size and rate of potential gas release events. Due to the potential for a large, rapid gas release event, an evaluation of mitigation methods to eliminate the hydrogen hazard is also needed. One method being considered for mitigating the hydrogen hazard during a loss of flow accident is to have a secondary flow system, with two redundant pumps operating in series, that re-circulates liquid upwards through the bed and into a vented break tank where hydrogen gas is released from the liquid and removed by venting the headspace of the break tank. The mechanism for inducing release of gas from the sRF bed is to fluidize the bed, which should allow retained bubbles to rise and be carried to the break tank. The overall conclusion of the testing is that fluidization is an effective method to remove hydrogen gas from a bed of sRF resin, but that a single fluidization velocity that is adequate to release gas in 55 ºC water will over-fluidize sRF resin in most LAW liquids, including both nominal and high-limit LAW simulants used in testing. An upper packed bed can retain hydrogen gas and pose a flammability hazard. Using periodic on:off fluidization, such as 5:55 min. on:off cycles, is effective at releasing gas while not creating an upper packed bed. Note that lengthening the fluidization duration in a one-hour cycle did result in a stable upper packed bed in one case with the nominal LAW simulant, so testing focused on shorter “on” periods which are needed for effective hydrogen release with periodic on:off fluidization« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1439032
Report Number(s):
PNNL-27460
830403000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
LAWPS; sRF resin; hydrogen gas

Citation Formats

Gauglitz, Phillip A., Rassat, Scot D., and Linn, Diana. Gas Retention, Gas Release, and Fluidization of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) Ion Exchange Resin. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1439032.
Gauglitz, Phillip A., Rassat, Scot D., & Linn, Diana. Gas Retention, Gas Release, and Fluidization of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) Ion Exchange Resin. United States. doi:10.2172/1439032.
Gauglitz, Phillip A., Rassat, Scot D., and Linn, Diana. Wed . "Gas Retention, Gas Release, and Fluidization of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) Ion Exchange Resin". United States. doi:10.2172/1439032. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439032.
@article{osti_1439032,
title = {Gas Retention, Gas Release, and Fluidization of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) Ion Exchange Resin},
author = {Gauglitz, Phillip A. and Rassat, Scot D. and Linn, Diana},
abstractNote = {The Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) is being developed to provide treated supernatant liquid from the Hanford tank farms directly to the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Vitrification Facility at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The design and development of the LAWPS is being conducted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC. A key process in LAWPS is the removal of radioactive Cs in ion exchange (IX) columns filled with spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. When loaded with radioactive Cs, radiolysis of water in the LAW liquid will generate hydrogen gas. In normal operations, the generated hydrogen is expected to remain dissolved in the liquid and be continuously removed by liquid flow. One accident scenario being evaluated is the loss of liquid flow through the sRF resin bed after it has been loaded with radioactive Cs and hydrogen gas is being generated by radiolysis. For an accident scenario with a loss of flow, hydrogen gas can be retained within the IX column both in the sRF resin bed and below the bottom screen that supports the resin within the column, which creates a hydrogen flammability hazard. Because there is a potential for a large fraction of the retained hydrogen to be released over a short duration as a gas release event, there is a need to quantify the size and rate of potential gas release events. Due to the potential for a large, rapid gas release event, an evaluation of mitigation methods to eliminate the hydrogen hazard is also needed. One method being considered for mitigating the hydrogen hazard during a loss of flow accident is to have a secondary flow system, with two redundant pumps operating in series, that re-circulates liquid upwards through the bed and into a vented break tank where hydrogen gas is released from the liquid and removed by venting the headspace of the break tank. The mechanism for inducing release of gas from the sRF bed is to fluidize the bed, which should allow retained bubbles to rise and be carried to the break tank. The overall conclusion of the testing is that fluidization is an effective method to remove hydrogen gas from a bed of sRF resin, but that a single fluidization velocity that is adequate to release gas in 55 ºC water will over-fluidize sRF resin in most LAW liquids, including both nominal and high-limit LAW simulants used in testing. An upper packed bed can retain hydrogen gas and pose a flammability hazard. Using periodic on:off fluidization, such as 5:55 min. on:off cycles, is effective at releasing gas while not creating an upper packed bed. Note that lengthening the fluidization duration in a one-hour cycle did result in a stable upper packed bed in one case with the nominal LAW simulant, so testing focused on shorter “on” periods which are needed for effective hydrogen release with periodic on:off fluidization},
doi = {10.2172/1439032},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 25 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Wed Apr 25 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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