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Title: Characteristic Vertical Profiles of Cloud Water Composition in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds and Relationships With Precipitation

Abstract

This study uses airborne cloud water composition measurements to characterize the vertical structure of air-equivalent mass concentrations of water-soluble species in marine stratocumulus clouds off the California coast. In this work, a total of 385 cloud water samples were collected in the months of July and August between 2011 and 2016 and analyzed for water-soluble ionic and elemental composition. Three characteristic profiles emerge: (i) a reduction of concentration with in-cloud altitude for particulate species directly emitted from sources below cloud without in-cloud sources (e.g., Cl -, Na +); (ii) an increase of concentration with in-cloud altitude (e.g., NO 2 -, formate); and (iii) species exhibiting a peak in concentration in the middle of cloud (e.g., non-sea salt SO 4 2-, NO 3 -, organic acids). Vertical profiles of rainout parameters such as loss frequency, lifetime, and change in concentration with respect to time show that the scavenging efficiency throughout the cloud depth depends strongly on the thickness of the cloud. Thin clouds exhibit a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud top, while thick clouds have a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud base. The implications of these results for treatment of wet scavenging in models are discussed.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  3. Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC)
  5. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)
  6. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR); Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1439004
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-133226
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; KP1703020
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; N00014-10-1-0811; N00014-11-1-0783; N00014-10-1-0200; N00014-04-1-0118; N00014-16-1-2567
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; cloud water; stratocumulus; scavenging; rainout; sea salt; aerosol

Citation Formats

MacDonald, Alexander B., Dadashazar, Hossein, Chuang, Patrick Y., Crosbie, Ewan, Wang, Hailong, Wang, Zhen, Jonsson, Haflidi H., Flagan, Richard C., Seinfeld, John H., and Sorooshian, Armin. Characteristic Vertical Profiles of Cloud Water Composition in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds and Relationships With Precipitation. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027900.
MacDonald, Alexander B., Dadashazar, Hossein, Chuang, Patrick Y., Crosbie, Ewan, Wang, Hailong, Wang, Zhen, Jonsson, Haflidi H., Flagan, Richard C., Seinfeld, John H., & Sorooshian, Armin. Characteristic Vertical Profiles of Cloud Water Composition in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds and Relationships With Precipitation. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027900.
MacDonald, Alexander B., Dadashazar, Hossein, Chuang, Patrick Y., Crosbie, Ewan, Wang, Hailong, Wang, Zhen, Jonsson, Haflidi H., Flagan, Richard C., Seinfeld, John H., and Sorooshian, Armin. Wed . "Characteristic Vertical Profiles of Cloud Water Composition in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds and Relationships With Precipitation". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027900. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439004.
@article{osti_1439004,
title = {Characteristic Vertical Profiles of Cloud Water Composition in Marine Stratocumulus Clouds and Relationships With Precipitation},
author = {MacDonald, Alexander B. and Dadashazar, Hossein and Chuang, Patrick Y. and Crosbie, Ewan and Wang, Hailong and Wang, Zhen and Jonsson, Haflidi H. and Flagan, Richard C. and Seinfeld, John H. and Sorooshian, Armin},
abstractNote = {This study uses airborne cloud water composition measurements to characterize the vertical structure of air-equivalent mass concentrations of water-soluble species in marine stratocumulus clouds off the California coast. In this work, a total of 385 cloud water samples were collected in the months of July and August between 2011 and 2016 and analyzed for water-soluble ionic and elemental composition. Three characteristic profiles emerge: (i) a reduction of concentration with in-cloud altitude for particulate species directly emitted from sources below cloud without in-cloud sources (e.g., Cl-, Na+); (ii) an increase of concentration with in-cloud altitude (e.g., NO2-, formate); and (iii) species exhibiting a peak in concentration in the middle of cloud (e.g., non-sea salt SO42-, NO3-, organic acids). Vertical profiles of rainout parameters such as loss frequency, lifetime, and change in concentration with respect to time show that the scavenging efficiency throughout the cloud depth depends strongly on the thickness of the cloud. Thin clouds exhibit a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud top, while thick clouds have a greater scavenging loss frequency at cloud base. The implications of these results for treatment of wet scavenging in models are discussed.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027900},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
issn = {2169-897X},
number = 7,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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Cited by: 10 works
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