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Title: Simultaneous Operando Measurements of the Local Temperature, State of Charge, and Strain inside a Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Pouch Cell

Abstract

A high energy X-ray diffraction technique is employed in a new way to make operando through-thickness measurements inside a large format commercial Li-ion pouch cell. The technique, which has a sub-mm in-plane spatial resolution, simultaneously determines the local temperature, the local state of charge of both electrodes (as opposed to the global average state of charge determined electrochemically), and the local in-plane elastic strain in the current collectors, all without embedding any intrusive sensors that alter battery behavior. As both thermal strain and mechanical strain develop during the charge-discharge cycling of the pouch cell, a novel approach developed herein makes it possible to separate them, allowing for measurement of the local temperature inside the battery. The operando experiment reveals that the temperature inside the cell is substantially higher than the external temperature. We propose that mechanical strain is due primarily to load transfer from the electrode to the current collector during lithiation, allowing determination of the local binder. Detailed local SOC mapping illustrates non-uniform degradation of the battery pouch cell. The possibility for 3D measurements is proposed. We believe that this new approach can provide critically needed data for validation of detailed models of processes inside commercial pouch cells.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). X-ray Science Division
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source
  5. Honda R&D Americas, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  6. ZeeAero, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1438509
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1480825; OSTI ID: 1490700
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 165; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; commercial lithium-ion battery; internal temperature and strain; simultaneous operando measurements

Citation Formats

Yu, Xinghua, Feng, Zhili, Ren, Yang, Henn, Daniel, Wu, Zhenggang, An, Ke, Wu, Bi, Fau, Christian, Li, Chen, and Harris, Stephen J. Simultaneous Operando Measurements of the Local Temperature, State of Charge, and Strain inside a Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Pouch Cell. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1149/2.1251807jes.
Yu, Xinghua, Feng, Zhili, Ren, Yang, Henn, Daniel, Wu, Zhenggang, An, Ke, Wu, Bi, Fau, Christian, Li, Chen, & Harris, Stephen J. Simultaneous Operando Measurements of the Local Temperature, State of Charge, and Strain inside a Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Pouch Cell. United States. doi:10.1149/2.1251807jes.
Yu, Xinghua, Feng, Zhili, Ren, Yang, Henn, Daniel, Wu, Zhenggang, An, Ke, Wu, Bi, Fau, Christian, Li, Chen, and Harris, Stephen J. Wed . "Simultaneous Operando Measurements of the Local Temperature, State of Charge, and Strain inside a Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Pouch Cell". United States. doi:10.1149/2.1251807jes.
@article{osti_1438509,
title = {Simultaneous Operando Measurements of the Local Temperature, State of Charge, and Strain inside a Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery Pouch Cell},
author = {Yu, Xinghua and Feng, Zhili and Ren, Yang and Henn, Daniel and Wu, Zhenggang and An, Ke and Wu, Bi and Fau, Christian and Li, Chen and Harris, Stephen J.},
abstractNote = {A high energy X-ray diffraction technique is employed in a new way to make operando through-thickness measurements inside a large format commercial Li-ion pouch cell. The technique, which has a sub-mm in-plane spatial resolution, simultaneously determines the local temperature, the local state of charge of both electrodes (as opposed to the global average state of charge determined electrochemically), and the local in-plane elastic strain in the current collectors, all without embedding any intrusive sensors that alter battery behavior. As both thermal strain and mechanical strain develop during the charge-discharge cycling of the pouch cell, a novel approach developed herein makes it possible to separate them, allowing for measurement of the local temperature inside the battery. The operando experiment reveals that the temperature inside the cell is substantially higher than the external temperature. We propose that mechanical strain is due primarily to load transfer from the electrode to the current collector during lithiation, allowing determination of the local binder. Detailed local SOC mapping illustrates non-uniform degradation of the battery pouch cell. The possibility for 3D measurements is proposed. We believe that this new approach can provide critically needed data for validation of detailed models of processes inside commercial pouch cells.},
doi = {10.1149/2.1251807jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
issn = {0013-4651},
number = 7,
volume = 165,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1149/2.1251807jes

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Operando synchrotron experimental setup, with insert showing the battery before sandwitched between two aluminum blocks for temperature control.

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Works referenced in this record:

In Situ Observation of Strains during Lithiation of a Graphite Electrode
journal, January 2010

  • Qi, Yue; Harris, Stephen J.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, Issue 6, p. A741-A747
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3377130

Modeling stresses in the separator of a pouch lithium-ion cell
journal, October 2011