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Title: Nanostructure and burning mode of light-duty diesel particulate with conventional diesel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends

Abstract

The nanostructure of diesel particulates has been shown to impact its oxidation rate and burnout trajectory. Additionally, this nanostructure can evolve during the oxidation process, furthering its influence on the burnout process. For this paper, exhaust particulates were generated on a light-duty diesel engine with conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends of the two at a single load-speed point. Despite the singular engine platform and operating point, the different fuels created particulates with varied nanostructure, thereby greatly expanding the window for observing nanostructure evolution and oxidation. The physical and chemical properties of the particulates in the nascent state and at partial oxidation states were measured in a laboratory reactor and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as a function of the degree of oxidation in O 2. X-ray photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis, thermal desorption, and solvent extraction of the nascent particulate samples reveal a significant organic content in the biodiesel-derived particulates, likely accounting for differences in the nanostructure. This study reports the nanoscale structural changes in the particulate with biofuel blend level and during O 2 oxidation as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by fringe analysis and Brunnauer–Emmet–Teller total surface area measurements. It was observed that initial fuel-relatedmore » differences in the lamella lengths, spacing, and curvature disappear when the particulate reaches approximately 50% burnout. Specifically, the initial ordered, fullerenic, and amorphous nanostructures converge during the oxidation process and the surface areas of these particulates appear to grow through these complex changes in internal particle structure. The specific surface area, measured at several points along the burnout trajectory, did not match the shrinking core projection and in contrast suggested that internal porosity was increasing. Thus, the appropriate burnout model for these particulates is significantly different from the standard shrinking core assumption, which does not account for any internal structure. Finally, an alternative burnout model is supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image analysis.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1437697
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1408638
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC05- 00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
International Journal of Engine Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 5-6; Journal ID: ISSN 1468-0874
Publisher:
SAGE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Citation Formats

Strzelec, Andrea, Vander Wal, Randy L., Lewis, Samuel A., Toops, Todd J., and Daw, C. Stuart. Nanostructure and burning mode of light-duty diesel particulate with conventional diesel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1177/1468087416674414.
Strzelec, Andrea, Vander Wal, Randy L., Lewis, Samuel A., Toops, Todd J., & Daw, C. Stuart. Nanostructure and burning mode of light-duty diesel particulate with conventional diesel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends. United States. doi:10.1177/1468087416674414.
Strzelec, Andrea, Vander Wal, Randy L., Lewis, Samuel A., Toops, Todd J., and Daw, C. Stuart. Wed . "Nanostructure and burning mode of light-duty diesel particulate with conventional diesel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends". United States. doi:10.1177/1468087416674414.
@article{osti_1437697,
title = {Nanostructure and burning mode of light-duty diesel particulate with conventional diesel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends},
author = {Strzelec, Andrea and Vander Wal, Randy L. and Lewis, Samuel A. and Toops, Todd J. and Daw, C. Stuart},
abstractNote = {The nanostructure of diesel particulates has been shown to impact its oxidation rate and burnout trajectory. Additionally, this nanostructure can evolve during the oxidation process, furthering its influence on the burnout process. For this paper, exhaust particulates were generated on a light-duty diesel engine with conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends of the two at a single load-speed point. Despite the singular engine platform and operating point, the different fuels created particulates with varied nanostructure, thereby greatly expanding the window for observing nanostructure evolution and oxidation. The physical and chemical properties of the particulates in the nascent state and at partial oxidation states were measured in a laboratory reactor and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as a function of the degree of oxidation in O2. X-ray photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis, thermal desorption, and solvent extraction of the nascent particulate samples reveal a significant organic content in the biodiesel-derived particulates, likely accounting for differences in the nanostructure. This study reports the nanoscale structural changes in the particulate with biofuel blend level and during O2 oxidation as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by fringe analysis and Brunnauer–Emmet–Teller total surface area measurements. It was observed that initial fuel-related differences in the lamella lengths, spacing, and curvature disappear when the particulate reaches approximately 50% burnout. Specifically, the initial ordered, fullerenic, and amorphous nanostructures converge during the oxidation process and the surface areas of these particulates appear to grow through these complex changes in internal particle structure. The specific surface area, measured at several points along the burnout trajectory, did not match the shrinking core projection and in contrast suggested that internal porosity was increasing. Thus, the appropriate burnout model for these particulates is significantly different from the standard shrinking core assumption, which does not account for any internal structure. Finally, an alternative burnout model is supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image analysis.},
doi = {10.1177/1468087416674414},
journal = {International Journal of Engine Research},
number = 5-6,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 18 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Jan 18 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1177/1468087416674414

Citation Metrics:
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  • The nanostructure of diesel particulates has been shown to impact its oxidation rate and burnout trajectory. Additionally, this nanostructure can evolve during the oxidation process, furthering its influence on the burnout process. For this paper, exhaust particulates were generated on a light-duty diesel engine with conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel, and intermediate blends of the two at a single load-speed point. Despite the singular engine platform and operating point, the different fuels created particulates with varied nanostructure, thereby greatly expanding the window for observing nanostructure evolution and oxidation. The physical and chemical properties of the particulates in the nascent state andmore » at partial oxidation states were measured in a laboratory reactor and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as a function of the degree of oxidation in O 2. X-ray photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis, thermal desorption, and solvent extraction of the nascent particulate samples reveal a significant organic content in the biodiesel-derived particulates, likely accounting for differences in the nanostructure. This study reports the nanoscale structural changes in the particulate with biofuel blend level and during O 2 oxidation as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and quantitated by fringe analysis and Brunnauer–Emmet–Teller total surface area measurements. It was observed that initial fuel-related differences in the lamella lengths, spacing, and curvature disappear when the particulate reaches approximately 50% burnout. Specifically, the initial ordered, fullerenic, and amorphous nanostructures converge during the oxidation process and the surface areas of these particulates appear to grow through these complex changes in internal particle structure. The specific surface area, measured at several points along the burnout trajectory, did not match the shrinking core projection and in contrast suggested that internal porosity was increasing. Thus, the appropriate burnout model for these particulates is significantly different from the standard shrinking core assumption, which does not account for any internal structure. Finally, an alternative burnout model is supported by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image analysis.« less
  • Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles.more » Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.« less
  • Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogatemore » fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends.« less
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