skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: High-resolution time-resolved experiments on mixing and entrainment of buoyant jets in stratified environments

Abstract

Fluid jets interacting with a stratified layer play an important role in the safety of several reactor designs. In the containment of nuclear power plants, fluid jets dominate the transport and mixing of gaseous species and consequent hydrogen distribution in case of a severe accident. The mixing phenomena in the containment are driven by buoyant high-momentum injections (jets) and low momentum injection plumes. Mixing near the postulated break is initially dominated by high flow velocities. Plumes with moderate flow velocities are instead relevant in the break compartment during the long-term pressurization phase, or in any of the apertures between two connected compartments if the mass flows are sufficiently high and the density differences between efflux and ambient are sufficiently low. Phenomena of interest include free plumes (as produced by the efflux from the break compartment in a larger room or directly from a break flow), wall plumes (such those produced by low mass flows through inter-compartment apertures), and propagating stratification fronts in the ambient (for any stably stratified conditions). These phenomena have been highly ranked about nuclear reactor design, especially regarding of safety protocols. During a Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) scenario, the interaction between the cold ECCS injection plume andmore » the stratified fluid present in the cold (or hot) leg is important in order to determine the temperature at the time-dependent temperature at the inlet of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the potential to cause a thermal shock on the RPV wall. In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), core channels are typically hydro-dynamically isolated so that there exists a considerable temperature variation at the exit of adjacent fuel assemblies. All the above phenomena are characterized by the interaction of buoyant jets with the stratified flow. In stratified layers baroclinic forces create significant redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy and scales, which leads to anisotropy. This important physical phenomenon is highly three dimensional and is challenging to capture even with high-fidelity CFD simulations, due in part to lack of sufficiently resolved validation data. Furthermore, the experimental data available in the open literature do not feature the level of fidelity needed for an extensive validation of turbulence models in lower order CFD. To shed new lights into the crucial phenomena object of the present research project, it was proposed to conduct coordinated experiments and simulations at the University of Michigan and the George Washington University. The project has resulted in an experimental database of high-resolution time-resolved measurements of jets in uniform and stratified environments. The novel experimental data will be used to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, including both Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) methodologies. In the Experimental and Multiphase flow (ECMF) laboratory at Univerisity of Michigan, we built two experimental facilities to investigate also the effect of scaling. The first facility, DESTROJER (DEnsity Stratified Turbulent ROund free Jet ExpeRiment), featuring a contoured jet nozzle with a diameter of D=12.7mm and a 1m×1m×1m cubic tank, which is made of acrylic glass for optical access. The ratio between the tank width and the nozzle diameter is equal to 78, which ensures that there is no direct interaction between the jet and the side walls. A second, modular experimental facility, features three different tank sizes of size 10×10×30, 20×20×30, 30×30×30 cm3 respectively (all tanks have the same height of 30 cm), and a jet diameter of 2mm. For the modular facility, tank-to-nozzle ratio of 50, 100, and 150 are obtained respectively. Experiments with different-density jet impactions and sharp interface with a density difference of 3.16% In the Laboratory at George Washington University, complementary experiments have been carried out at a facility featuring the same dimensions as DESTROYER. Experiments with different jet diameters have been carried out as well. High-resolution time-resolved measurements have been performed at all facilities using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). In this way, simultaneous measurements of velocity and density fields have been carried out. At the University of Michigan, wire-mesh sensors have been designed and built to gather high-resolution, time-dependent data of the stratified front in the tank. These measurements are important to provide accurate initial conditions for the CFD simulations. An important outcome of the project has been the development of novel techniques to achieve refractive index matching (RIM) of acqueous solutions with high density differences. RIM is crucial if optical techniques such as PIV are used to measure velocity fields. Previous to this project, experiments up to 3% density difference had been reported in the literature. With the methodology developed in this project, we have been able to push the envelop to density differences up to 9%. The experiments have been used to validate Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models. Both NEK5000 and the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+ have been used. The experimental data will be made available to the community through the NE-KAMS databasehave been successfully conducted in the scaled facility.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1437156
Report Number(s):
14-6552
14-6552
DOE Contract Number:  
NE0008265
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS

Citation Formats

Manera, Annalisa, Bardet, Philippe, and Petrov, Victor. High-resolution time-resolved experiments on mixing and entrainment of buoyant jets in stratified environments. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1437156.
Manera, Annalisa, Bardet, Philippe, & Petrov, Victor. High-resolution time-resolved experiments on mixing and entrainment of buoyant jets in stratified environments. United States. doi:10.2172/1437156.
Manera, Annalisa, Bardet, Philippe, and Petrov, Victor. Thu . "High-resolution time-resolved experiments on mixing and entrainment of buoyant jets in stratified environments". United States. doi:10.2172/1437156. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1437156.
@article{osti_1437156,
title = {High-resolution time-resolved experiments on mixing and entrainment of buoyant jets in stratified environments},
author = {Manera, Annalisa and Bardet, Philippe and Petrov, Victor},
abstractNote = {Fluid jets interacting with a stratified layer play an important role in the safety of several reactor designs. In the containment of nuclear power plants, fluid jets dominate the transport and mixing of gaseous species and consequent hydrogen distribution in case of a severe accident. The mixing phenomena in the containment are driven by buoyant high-momentum injections (jets) and low momentum injection plumes. Mixing near the postulated break is initially dominated by high flow velocities. Plumes with moderate flow velocities are instead relevant in the break compartment during the long-term pressurization phase, or in any of the apertures between two connected compartments if the mass flows are sufficiently high and the density differences between efflux and ambient are sufficiently low. Phenomena of interest include free plumes (as produced by the efflux from the break compartment in a larger room or directly from a break flow), wall plumes (such those produced by low mass flows through inter-compartment apertures), and propagating stratification fronts in the ambient (for any stably stratified conditions). These phenomena have been highly ranked about nuclear reactor design, especially regarding of safety protocols. During a Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) scenario, the interaction between the cold ECCS injection plume and the stratified fluid present in the cold (or hot) leg is important in order to determine the temperature at the time-dependent temperature at the inlet of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the potential to cause a thermal shock on the RPV wall. In sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), core channels are typically hydro-dynamically isolated so that there exists a considerable temperature variation at the exit of adjacent fuel assemblies. All the above phenomena are characterized by the interaction of buoyant jets with the stratified flow. In stratified layers baroclinic forces create significant redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy and scales, which leads to anisotropy. This important physical phenomenon is highly three dimensional and is challenging to capture even with high-fidelity CFD simulations, due in part to lack of sufficiently resolved validation data. Furthermore, the experimental data available in the open literature do not feature the level of fidelity needed for an extensive validation of turbulence models in lower order CFD. To shed new lights into the crucial phenomena object of the present research project, it was proposed to conduct coordinated experiments and simulations at the University of Michigan and the George Washington University. The project has resulted in an experimental database of high-resolution time-resolved measurements of jets in uniform and stratified environments. The novel experimental data will be used to validate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, including both Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) methodologies. In the Experimental and Multiphase flow (ECMF) laboratory at Univerisity of Michigan, we built two experimental facilities to investigate also the effect of scaling. The first facility, DESTROJER (DEnsity Stratified Turbulent ROund free Jet ExpeRiment), featuring a contoured jet nozzle with a diameter of D=12.7mm and a 1m×1m×1m cubic tank, which is made of acrylic glass for optical access. The ratio between the tank width and the nozzle diameter is equal to 78, which ensures that there is no direct interaction between the jet and the side walls. A second, modular experimental facility, features three different tank sizes of size 10×10×30, 20×20×30, 30×30×30 cm3 respectively (all tanks have the same height of 30 cm), and a jet diameter of 2mm. For the modular facility, tank-to-nozzle ratio of 50, 100, and 150 are obtained respectively. Experiments with different-density jet impactions and sharp interface with a density difference of 3.16% In the Laboratory at George Washington University, complementary experiments have been carried out at a facility featuring the same dimensions as DESTROYER. Experiments with different jet diameters have been carried out as well. High-resolution time-resolved measurements have been performed at all facilities using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). In this way, simultaneous measurements of velocity and density fields have been carried out. At the University of Michigan, wire-mesh sensors have been designed and built to gather high-resolution, time-dependent data of the stratified front in the tank. These measurements are important to provide accurate initial conditions for the CFD simulations. An important outcome of the project has been the development of novel techniques to achieve refractive index matching (RIM) of acqueous solutions with high density differences. RIM is crucial if optical techniques such as PIV are used to measure velocity fields. Previous to this project, experiments up to 3% density difference had been reported in the literature. With the methodology developed in this project, we have been able to push the envelop to density differences up to 9%. The experiments have been used to validate Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) models. Both NEK5000 and the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+ have been used. The experimental data will be made available to the community through the NE-KAMS databasehave been successfully conducted in the scaled facility.},
doi = {10.2172/1437156},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}