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Title: High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals

Abstract

Here, Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 10 16 and 10 20 cm –3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 10 17 cm –3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a second phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20–30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm 2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 10 17/cm 3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200–300 °C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 10 16 cm –3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples,more » while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 10 18 cm –3 As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1437102
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1436384
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-71157
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; EE0004946
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 112; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; doping; crystal defects; solar energy; semiconductors

Citation Formats

Nagaoka, Akira, Kuciauskas, Darius, McCoy, Jedidiah, and Scarpulla, Michael A. High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5029450.
Nagaoka, Akira, Kuciauskas, Darius, McCoy, Jedidiah, & Scarpulla, Michael A. High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5029450.
Nagaoka, Akira, Kuciauskas, Darius, McCoy, Jedidiah, and Scarpulla, Michael A. Mon . "High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5029450.
@article{osti_1437102,
title = {High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals},
author = {Nagaoka, Akira and Kuciauskas, Darius and McCoy, Jedidiah and Scarpulla, Michael A.},
abstractNote = {Here, Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 1016 and 1020 cm–3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 1017 cm–3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a second phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20–30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 1017/cm3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200–300 °C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 1016 cm–3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples, while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 1018 cm–3 As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5029450},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 19,
volume = 112,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 07 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Mon May 07 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Dependence of the Minority-Carrier Lifetime on the Stoichiometry of CdTe Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and First-Principles Calculations
journal, August 2013