skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Millisecond Pulsars, TeV Halos, and Implications For The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess

Abstract

Observations by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory indicate that many young pulsars (including Geminga and Monogem) are surrounded by spatially extended, multi-TeV emitting regions. It is not currently known, however, whether TeV emission is also produced by recycled, millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In this study, we perform a stacked analysis of 24 MSPs within HAWC’s field of-view, finding between 2.6–3.1σ evidence that these sources are, in fact, surrounded by TeV halos. The efficiency with which these MSPs produce TeV halos is similar to that exhibited by young pulsars. This result suggests that several dozen MSPs will ultimately be detectable by HAWC, including many “invisible” pulsars without radio beams oriented in our direction. The TeV halos of unresolved MSPs could also dominate the TeV-scale diffuse emission observed at high galactic latitudes. We also discuss the possibility that TeV and radio observations could be used to constrain the population of MSPs that is present in the inner Milky Way, thereby providing us with a new way to test the hypothesis that MSPs are responsible for the Galactic Center GeV excess.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Fermilab
  2. UC, Santa Cruz, Inst. Part. Phys.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1436717
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1803.08046; FERMILAB-PUB-18-069-A
1663566
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Phys.Rev.
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: D98; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Hooper, Dan, and Linden, Tim. Millisecond Pulsars, TeV Halos, and Implications For The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.98.043005.
Hooper, Dan, & Linden, Tim. Millisecond Pulsars, TeV Halos, and Implications For The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.98.043005.
Hooper, Dan, and Linden, Tim. Tue . "Millisecond Pulsars, TeV Halos, and Implications For The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.98.043005. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436717.
@article{osti_1436717,
title = {Millisecond Pulsars, TeV Halos, and Implications For The Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess},
author = {Hooper, Dan and Linden, Tim},
abstractNote = {Observations by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory indicate that many young pulsars (including Geminga and Monogem) are surrounded by spatially extended, multi-TeV emitting regions. It is not currently known, however, whether TeV emission is also produced by recycled, millisecond pulsars (MSPs). In this study, we perform a stacked analysis of 24 MSPs within HAWC’s field of-view, finding between 2.6–3.1σ evidence that these sources are, in fact, surrounded by TeV halos. The efficiency with which these MSPs produce TeV halos is similar to that exhibited by young pulsars. This result suggests that several dozen MSPs will ultimately be detectable by HAWC, including many “invisible” pulsars without radio beams oriented in our direction. The TeV halos of unresolved MSPs could also dominate the TeV-scale diffuse emission observed at high galactic latitudes. We also discuss the possibility that TeV and radio observations could be used to constrain the population of MSPs that is present in the inner Milky Way, thereby providing us with a new way to test the hypothesis that MSPs are responsible for the Galactic Center GeV excess.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.98.043005},
journal = {Phys.Rev.},
number = 4,
volume = D98,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:

Figures / Tables:

Table 1 Table 1: The 24 millisecond pulsars in the HAWC field-of-view with Ė/d2 > 5 × 1033 erg/kpc2/s and which are not located near another HAWC source. For each pulsar, we list the measured distance and error bars when available. We adopt parallax (P) measurements when possible, as those based onmore » the dispersion measure (DM) rely on modeling of the traversed medium. In the two rightmost columns we list the test statistic (TS) found using the HAWC 2HWC Survey online tool for the case of a point-like gamma-ray source and a gamma-ray source with Geminga-like extension, respectively. The observation that 4 out of 24 of these sources exhibit (TS)1/2 > 2.07 (for the case of Geminga-like extension) has a chance probability of only 0.13% (assuming the null hypothesis), corresponding to 3.2σ evidence in favor of TeV halos around this collection of MSPs.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Z mediated dark matter models for the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess
journal, February 2015


Extended gamma-ray sources around pulsars constrain the origin of the positron flux at Earth
journal, November 2017


RADIO DETECTION OF THE FERMI -LAT BLIND SEARCH MILLISECOND PULSAR J1311–3430
journal, January 2013


A 25.3 Day Periodicity in the Timing of the Pulsar PSR B1257+12: A Planet or a Heliospheric Propagation Effect?
journal, September 2000

  • Wolszczan, A.; Hoffman, I. M.; Konacki, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 540, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/312872

The gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars and implications for the GeV excess
journal, March 2016


Low mass X-ray binaries in the Inner Galaxy: implications for millisecond pulsars and the GeV excess
journal, May 2017

  • Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig; Hooper, Dan
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2017, Issue 05
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2017/05/056

Pulsar Wind Nebulae and the Nonthermal X‐Ray Emission of Millisecond Pulsars
journal, April 2006

  • Cheng, K. S.; Taam, Ronald E.; Wang, W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/500345

Dark matter, shared asymmetries, and galactic gamma ray signals
journal, February 2016

  • Fonseca, Nayara; Necib, Lina; Thaler, Jesse
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 02
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2016/02/052

Orbital variability in the eclipsing pulsar binary PSR B1957+20
journal, May 1994

  • Arzoumanian, Z.; Fruchter, A. S.; Taylor, J. H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 426
  • DOI: 10.1086/187346

THE FIRST FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS
journal, March 2010

  • Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 187, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/460

Bremsstrahlung, Synchrotron Radiation, and Compton Scattering of High-Energy Electrons Traversing Dilute Gases
journal, April 1970


THE SPECTRUM OF ISOTROPIC DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION BETWEEN 100 MeV AND 820 GeV
journal, January 2015


The population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae in the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey
journal, April 2018


Discovery of three binary millisecond pulsars
journal, April 1994

  • Bailes, M.; Harrison, P. A.; Lorimer, D. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 425
  • DOI: 10.1086/187306

Dark matter and pulsar model constraints from Galactic Center Fermi-LAT gamma-ray observations
journal, October 2013


Timing stability of millisecond pulsars and prospects for gravitational-wave detection
journal, December 2009


Fitting the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess with cascade annihilations
journal, November 2014


Dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center as seen by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope
journal, March 2011


Multimediator models for the Galactic Center gamma ray excess
journal, June 2015


Very long Baseline Interferometry Measured Proper Motion and Parallax of the γ-Ray Millisecond Pulsar psr J0218+4232
journal, February 2014


Towards a supersymmetric description of the Fermi Galactic center excess
journal, February 2015

  • Cahill-Rowley, M.; Gainer, J. S.; Hewett, J. L.
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP02(2015)057

The Fermi Galactic Center GeV Excess and Implications for Dark Matter
journal, May 2017


Bottom-up approach to the Galactic Center excess
journal, September 2014


On the Evolution of Pulsar Beams
journal, August 1998


Dark Kinetic Heating of Neutron Stars and an Infrared Window on WIMPs, SIMPs, and Pure Higgsinos
journal, September 2017


Lining up the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess
journal, March 2015


Effective field theory approach to the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess
journal, December 2014


Galactic center γ-ray excess in hidden sector DM models with dark gauge symmetries: local Z 3 symmetry as an example
journal, January 2015


The gamma-ray pulsar population of globular clusters: implications for the GeV excess
journal, August 2016


Challenges in explaining the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess with millisecond pulsars
journal, June 2015


Z-portal dark matter
journal, March 2015

  • Arcadi, Giorgio; Mambrini, Yann; Richard, Francois
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 03
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/03/018

The pulsar contribution to the gamma-ray background
journal, January 2010

  • Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Loeb, Abraham
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2010, Issue 01
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2010/01/005

Disrupted Globular Clusters can Explain the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess
journal, October 2015


Dark matter interpretation of the Fermi -LAT observation toward the Galactic Center
journal, May 2017


TeV cosmic-ray electrons from millisecond pulsars: TeV electrons from millisecond pulsars
journal, March 2012


A lower limit of 50 microgauss for the magnetic field near the Galactic Centre
journal, January 2010

  • Crocker, Roland M.; Jones, David I.; Melia, Fulvio
  • Nature, Vol. 463, Issue 7277
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08635

Flavored dark matter and the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess
journal, September 2014


MSSM A-funnel and the galactic center excess: prospects for the LHC and direct detection experiments
journal, April 2016

  • Freese, Katherine; López, Alejandro; Shah, Nausheen R.
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP04(2016)059

Global analysis of the pMSSM in light of the Fermi GeV excess: prospects for the LHC Run-II and astroparticle experiments
journal, April 2016

  • Bertone, Gianfranco; Calore, Francesca; Caron, Sascha
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 04
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2016/04/037

Millisecond pulsars and the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess: the importance of luminosity function and secondary emission
journal, February 2015

  • Petrović, Jovana; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Zaharijas, Gabrijela
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 02
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/02/023

TeV gamma-ray emission initiated by the population or individual millisecond pulsars within globular clusters
journal, February 2016

  • Bednarek, W.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczak, T.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw367

Origin of the gamma rays from the Galactic Center
journal, December 2011


FERMI -LAT OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY γ -RAY EMISSION TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER
journal, February 2016


Hidden on-shell mediators for the Galactic Center γ -ray excess
journal, August 2014


The gamma-ray millisecond pulsar deathline, revisited: New velocity and distance measurements
journal, February 2016


Dark forces and light dark matter
journal, September 2012


Cosmic-Ray Positrons from Millisecond Pulsars
journal, July 2015


Hidden sector dark matter models for the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess
journal, July 2014


TeV gamma rays from Galactic Center pulsars
journal, September 2018


Using HAWC to discover invisible pulsars
journal, November 2017


A 2.1 M Pulsar Measured by Relativistic Orbital Decay
journal, December 2005

  • Nice, David J.; Splaver, Eric M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 634, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/497109

Gamma ray emission in Fermi bubbles and Higgs portal dark matter
journal, February 2014


HAWC observations strongly favor pulsar interpretations of the cosmic-ray positron excess
journal, November 2017


Diffuse Continuum Gamma Rays from the Galaxy
journal, July 2000

  • Strong, Andrew W.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Reimer, Olaf
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 537, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/309038

Low-mass right-handed sneutrino dark matter: SuperCDMS and LUX constraints and the Galactic Centre gamma-ray excess
journal, August 2014


A description of the Galactic Center excess in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model
journal, August 2015

  • Achterberg, Abraham; Amoroso, Simone; Caron, Sascha
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 08
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/08/006

On Pulsar Distance Measurements and Their Uncertainties
journal, July 2012


Pulsar TeV Halos Explain the Diffuse TeV Excess Observed by Milagro
journal, March 2018


The 2HWC HAWC Observatory Gamma-Ray Catalog
journal, June 2017


The Australia Telescope National Facility Pulsar Catalogue
journal, April 2005

  • Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G. B.; Teoh, A.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 129, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/428488

Two emission mechanisms in the Fermi Bubbles: A possible signal of annihilating dark matter
journal, September 2013


Extended gamma-ray emission from Coy Dark Matter
journal, May 2014

  • Bœhm, Céline; Dolan, Matthew J.; McCabe, Christopher
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2014, Issue 05
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2014/05/009

The Evolution and Structure of Pulsar Wind Nebulae
journal, September 2006


Neutrino masses and leptogenesis in type I and type II seesaw models
journal, July 2014


Pseudoscalar portal dark matter
journal, July 2015


The characterization of the gamma-ray signal from the central Milky Way: A case for annihilating dark matter
journal, June 2016


Renormalizable model for the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess from dark matter annihilation
journal, September 2014


Signals of a light dark force in the galactic center
journal, August 2015


A Parallax Distance and mass Estimate for the Transitional Millisecond Pulsar System J1023+0038
journal, August 2012


Anisotropies in the gamma-ray sky from millisecond pulsars: Millisecond pulsar gamma-ray anisotropy
journal, June 2011

  • Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Reesman, Rebecca; Pavlidou, Vasiliki
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 415, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18672.x

Evidence for Unresolved γ -Ray Point Sources in the Inner Galaxy
journal, February 2016


Strong Support for the Millisecond Pulsar Origin of the Galactic Center GeV Excess
journal, February 2016


THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS
journal, September 2013

  • Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 208, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/208/2/17

Simplified dark matter models for the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess
journal, June 2014


Background model systematics for the Fermi GeV excess
journal, March 2015

  • Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; Weniger, Christoph
  • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 03
  • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2015/03/038

Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
journal, November 2008


    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.