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Title: Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System for Disposing of the U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory

Abstract

The current United States inventory of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is ~80,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM), including ~131 tons of minor actinides (MAs) and ~669 tons of plutonium. This study describes a conceptual design of an accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system for disposing of this SNF inventory by utilizing the 131 tons of MAs inventory and a fraction of the plutonium inventory for energy production, and transmuting some long-lived fission products. An ADS system with a homogeneous subcritical fission blanket was first examined. A spallation neutron source is used to drive the blanket and it is produced from the interaction of a 1-GeV proton beam with a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target. The blanket has a liquid mobile fuel using LBE as the fuel carrier. The fuel materials are dissolved, mixed, or suspended in the liquid fuel carrier. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to determine the overall parameters of the concept. Steady-state Monte Carlo simulations were performed for three similar fission blankets. Except for, the loaded amount of actinide materials in the LBE is either 5, 7, or 10% of the total volume of the blanket, respectively. The neutron multiplication factors of the three blankets are ~0.98 and themore » initial MAs blanket inventories are ~10 tons. In addition, Monte Carlo burnup simulations using the MCB5 code were performed to analyze the performance of the three conceptual ADS systems. During operation, fresh fuel was fed into the fission blanket to adjust its reactivity and to control the system power. The burnup analysis shows that the three ADS concepts consume about 1.2 tons of actinides per full power year and produce 3 GW thermal power, with a proton beam power of 25 MW. For the blankets with 5, 7, or 10% actinide fuel particles loaded in the LBE, assuming that the ADS systems can be operated for 35 full-power years, the total MA materials consumed in the three ADS systems are about 30.6, 35.3, and 37.2 tons, respectively. Thus, the corresponding numbers of ADS systems to utilize the 131 tons of MA materials of the SNF inventory are 4.3, 3.7, or 3.5, respectively. ADS concepts with tube bundles inserted in the fission blanket were analyzed to overcome the disadvantages of the homogeneous blanket concept. The liquid lead is used as the target material, the mobile fuel carrier, and the primary coolant to avoid the polonium production from bismuth. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses were coupled to determine the parameters of the heterogeneous fission blanket. The engineering requirements for a satisfactory operation performance of the HT-9 ferritic steel structure material have been realized. Two heterogeneous concepts of the subcritical fission blanket with the liquid lead mobile fuel inside or outside the tube bundles were considered. The heterogeneous configuration with the mobile fuel inside the tubes showed better performance than the configuration with mobile fuel outside the bundle tubes. The Monte Carlo burnup codes, MCB5 and SERPENT were both used to simulate the fuel burnup in the ADS concepts with the mobile fuels inside the tubes. The burnup analyses were carried out for 35 full power years. The results show that 5 ADS systems can dispose of the total United States inventory of the spent nuclear fuel.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1436583
Report Number(s):
ANL-18/07
143735; TRN: US1801206
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; SPENT FUELS; PLUTONIUM; ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN SUBCRITICAL SYSTEMS; LEAD-BISMUTH EUTECTIC; FUEL PARTICLES

Citation Formats

Gohar, Yousry, Cao, Yan, and Kraus, Adam R. Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System for Disposing of the U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1436583.
Gohar, Yousry, Cao, Yan, & Kraus, Adam R. Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System for Disposing of the U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory. United States. doi:10.2172/1436583.
Gohar, Yousry, Cao, Yan, and Kraus, Adam R. Sun . "Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System for Disposing of the U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory". United States. doi:10.2172/1436583. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436583.
@article{osti_1436583,
title = {Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System for Disposing of the U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Inventory},
author = {Gohar, Yousry and Cao, Yan and Kraus, Adam R.},
abstractNote = {The current United States inventory of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is ~80,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM), including ~131 tons of minor actinides (MAs) and ~669 tons of plutonium. This study describes a conceptual design of an accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system for disposing of this SNF inventory by utilizing the 131 tons of MAs inventory and a fraction of the plutonium inventory for energy production, and transmuting some long-lived fission products. An ADS system with a homogeneous subcritical fission blanket was first examined. A spallation neutron source is used to drive the blanket and it is produced from the interaction of a 1-GeV proton beam with a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target. The blanket has a liquid mobile fuel using LBE as the fuel carrier. The fuel materials are dissolved, mixed, or suspended in the liquid fuel carrier. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to determine the overall parameters of the concept. Steady-state Monte Carlo simulations were performed for three similar fission blankets. Except for, the loaded amount of actinide materials in the LBE is either 5, 7, or 10% of the total volume of the blanket, respectively. The neutron multiplication factors of the three blankets are ~0.98 and the initial MAs blanket inventories are ~10 tons. In addition, Monte Carlo burnup simulations using the MCB5 code were performed to analyze the performance of the three conceptual ADS systems. During operation, fresh fuel was fed into the fission blanket to adjust its reactivity and to control the system power. The burnup analysis shows that the three ADS concepts consume about 1.2 tons of actinides per full power year and produce 3 GW thermal power, with a proton beam power of 25 MW. For the blankets with 5, 7, or 10% actinide fuel particles loaded in the LBE, assuming that the ADS systems can be operated for 35 full-power years, the total MA materials consumed in the three ADS systems are about 30.6, 35.3, and 37.2 tons, respectively. Thus, the corresponding numbers of ADS systems to utilize the 131 tons of MA materials of the SNF inventory are 4.3, 3.7, or 3.5, respectively. ADS concepts with tube bundles inserted in the fission blanket were analyzed to overcome the disadvantages of the homogeneous blanket concept. The liquid lead is used as the target material, the mobile fuel carrier, and the primary coolant to avoid the polonium production from bismuth. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses were coupled to determine the parameters of the heterogeneous fission blanket. The engineering requirements for a satisfactory operation performance of the HT-9 ferritic steel structure material have been realized. Two heterogeneous concepts of the subcritical fission blanket with the liquid lead mobile fuel inside or outside the tube bundles were considered. The heterogeneous configuration with the mobile fuel inside the tubes showed better performance than the configuration with mobile fuel outside the bundle tubes. The Monte Carlo burnup codes, MCB5 and SERPENT were both used to simulate the fuel burnup in the ADS concepts with the mobile fuels inside the tubes. The burnup analyses were carried out for 35 full power years. The results show that 5 ADS systems can dispose of the total United States inventory of the spent nuclear fuel.},
doi = {10.2172/1436583},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

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