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Title: Mechano-Electrochemical Interaction Gives Rise to Strain Relaxation in Sn Electrodes

Abstract

Tin (Sn) anode active particles were electrochemically lithiated during simultaneous imaging in a scanning electron microscope. Relationships among the reaction mechanism, active particle local strain rate, particle size, and microcrack formation are elucidated to demonstrate the importance of strain relaxation due to mechano-electrochemical interaction in Sn-based electrodes under electrochemical cycling. At low rates of operation, due to significant creep relaxation, large Sn active particles, of size 1 μm, exhibit no significant surface crack formation. Microcrack formation within Sn active particles occurs due to two different mechanisms: (i)large concentration gradient induced stress at the two-phase interface, and (ii) high volume expansion induced stress at the surface of the active particles. From the present study, it can be concluded that majority of the microcracks evolve at or near the particle surface due to high volume expansion induced tension. Concentration gradient induced damage prevails near the center of the active particle, though significantly smaller in magnitude. Comparison with experimental results indicates that at operating conditions of C/2, even 500 nm sized Sn active particles remain free from surface crack formation, which emphasizes the importance of creep relaxation. A phase map has been developed to demonstrate the preferred mechano-electrochemical window of operation of Sn-basedmore » electrodes.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS; Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1436481
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1436479
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0006509
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 163; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
Publisher:
The Electrochemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Barai, Pallab, Huang, Bo, Dillon, Shen J., and Mukherjee, Partha P. Mechano-Electrochemical Interaction Gives Rise to Strain Relaxation in Sn Electrodes. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1149/2.0801614jes.
Barai, Pallab, Huang, Bo, Dillon, Shen J., & Mukherjee, Partha P. Mechano-Electrochemical Interaction Gives Rise to Strain Relaxation in Sn Electrodes. United States. doi:10.1149/2.0801614jes.
Barai, Pallab, Huang, Bo, Dillon, Shen J., and Mukherjee, Partha P. Fri . "Mechano-Electrochemical Interaction Gives Rise to Strain Relaxation in Sn Electrodes". United States. doi:10.1149/2.0801614jes. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436481.
@article{osti_1436481,
title = {Mechano-Electrochemical Interaction Gives Rise to Strain Relaxation in Sn Electrodes},
author = {Barai, Pallab and Huang, Bo and Dillon, Shen J. and Mukherjee, Partha P.},
abstractNote = {Tin (Sn) anode active particles were electrochemically lithiated during simultaneous imaging in a scanning electron microscope. Relationships among the reaction mechanism, active particle local strain rate, particle size, and microcrack formation are elucidated to demonstrate the importance of strain relaxation due to mechano-electrochemical interaction in Sn-based electrodes under electrochemical cycling. At low rates of operation, due to significant creep relaxation, large Sn active particles, of size 1 μm, exhibit no significant surface crack formation. Microcrack formation within Sn active particles occurs due to two different mechanisms: (i)large concentration gradient induced stress at the two-phase interface, and (ii) high volume expansion induced stress at the surface of the active particles. From the present study, it can be concluded that majority of the microcracks evolve at or near the particle surface due to high volume expansion induced tension. Concentration gradient induced damage prevails near the center of the active particle, though significantly smaller in magnitude. Comparison with experimental results indicates that at operating conditions of C/2, even 500 nm sized Sn active particles remain free from surface crack formation, which emphasizes the importance of creep relaxation. A phase map has been developed to demonstrate the preferred mechano-electrochemical window of operation of Sn-based electrodes.},
doi = {10.1149/2.0801614jes},
journal = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
number = 14,
volume = 163,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2016},
month = {Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2016}
}

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Cited by: 6 works
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Works referenced in this record:

Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries
journal, November 2001

  • Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M.
  • Nature, Vol. 414, Issue 6861, p. 359-367
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Electrochemical lithiation of tin and tin-based intermetallics and composites
journal, September 1999