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Title: Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Abstract

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work. Two risk safeguard fuels (RSG), representing the properties of worst case market fuels in Europe and China, were also included. The particle number concentration of the solid particulates was measured in the engine-out exhaust flow at steady state engine operations with load and speed sweeps, and semi-transient load steps. The test results showed a factor of 6 PN emission difference among all certification fuels tested. Combined withmore » detailed fuel analyses, this study evaluated important factors (such as oxygenates, carbon chain length and thermo-physical properties) that cause PN emissions which were not included in PMI index. A linear regression was performed to develop a PN predictive model which showed improved fitting quality than using PMI.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Robert Bosch LLC
  3. General Motors LLC
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1436397
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5400-71483
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at WCX 18: SAE World Congress Experience, 10-12 April 2018, Detroit, Michigan
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; gasoline direct injection; spark-ignition engines; fuel consumption

Citation Formats

McCormick, Robert L, Fioroni, Gina, Fatouraie, Mohammad, Frommherz, Mario, Mosburger, Michael, Chapman, Elana, and Li, Sharon. Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.4271/2018-01-0358.
McCormick, Robert L, Fioroni, Gina, Fatouraie, Mohammad, Frommherz, Mario, Mosburger, Michael, Chapman, Elana, & Li, Sharon. Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine. United States. doi:10.4271/2018-01-0358.
McCormick, Robert L, Fioroni, Gina, Fatouraie, Mohammad, Frommherz, Mario, Mosburger, Michael, Chapman, Elana, and Li, Sharon. Tue . "Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine". United States. doi:10.4271/2018-01-0358. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436397.
@article{osti_1436397,
title = {Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine},
author = {McCormick, Robert L and Fioroni, Gina and Fatouraie, Mohammad and Frommherz, Mario and Mosburger, Michael and Chapman, Elana and Li, Sharon},
abstractNote = {Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work. Two risk safeguard fuels (RSG), representing the properties of worst case market fuels in Europe and China, were also included. The particle number concentration of the solid particulates was measured in the engine-out exhaust flow at steady state engine operations with load and speed sweeps, and semi-transient load steps. The test results showed a factor of 6 PN emission difference among all certification fuels tested. Combined with detailed fuel analyses, this study evaluated important factors (such as oxygenates, carbon chain length and thermo-physical properties) that cause PN emissions which were not included in PMI index. A linear regression was performed to develop a PN predictive model which showed improved fitting quality than using PMI.},
doi = {10.4271/2018-01-0358},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Apr 03 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Tue Apr 03 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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