skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova

Abstract

With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, which sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF 13dqy= SN 2013fsa mere 1/43 h after explosion. Our rapid follow-up observations, which include multiwavelength photometry and extremely early (beginning at 1/46 h post-explosion) spectra, map the distribution of material in the immediate environment ( ‰210 15 cm) of the exploding star and establish that it was surrounded by circumstellar material (CSM) that was ejected during the final 1/41 yr prior to explosion at a high rate, around 10 '3 solar masses per year. The complete disappearance of flash-ionized emission lines within the first several days requires that the dense CSM be confined to within ‰210 15 cm, consistent with radio non-detections at 70-100 days. The observations indicate that iPTF 13dqy was a regular type II supernova; thus, the finding that the probable red supergiant progenitor of this common explosion ejected material at a highly elevated rate just prior tomore » its demise suggests that pre-supernova instabilities may be common among exploding massive stars.« less

Authors:
; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1436152
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Yaron, O., Perley, D. A., Gal-Yam, A., Groh, J. H., Horesh, A., Ofek, E. O., Kulkarni, S. R., Sollerman, J., Fransson, C., Rubin, A., Szabo, P., Sapir, N., Taddia, F., Cenko, S. B., Valenti, S., Arcavi, I., Howell, D. A., Kasliwal, M. M., Vreeswijk, P. M., Khazov, D., Fox, O. D., Cao, Y., Gnat, O., Kelly, P. L., Nugent, P. E., Filippenko, A. V., Laher, R. R., Wozniak, P. R., Lee, W. H., Rebbapragada, U. D., Maguire, K., Sullivan, M., and Soumagnac, M. T. Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nphys4025.
Yaron, O., Perley, D. A., Gal-Yam, A., Groh, J. H., Horesh, A., Ofek, E. O., Kulkarni, S. R., Sollerman, J., Fransson, C., Rubin, A., Szabo, P., Sapir, N., Taddia, F., Cenko, S. B., Valenti, S., Arcavi, I., Howell, D. A., Kasliwal, M. M., Vreeswijk, P. M., Khazov, D., Fox, O. D., Cao, Y., Gnat, O., Kelly, P. L., Nugent, P. E., Filippenko, A. V., Laher, R. R., Wozniak, P. R., Lee, W. H., Rebbapragada, U. D., Maguire, K., Sullivan, M., & Soumagnac, M. T. Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova. United States. doi:10.1038/nphys4025.
Yaron, O., Perley, D. A., Gal-Yam, A., Groh, J. H., Horesh, A., Ofek, E. O., Kulkarni, S. R., Sollerman, J., Fransson, C., Rubin, A., Szabo, P., Sapir, N., Taddia, F., Cenko, S. B., Valenti, S., Arcavi, I., Howell, D. A., Kasliwal, M. M., Vreeswijk, P. M., Khazov, D., Fox, O. D., Cao, Y., Gnat, O., Kelly, P. L., Nugent, P. E., Filippenko, A. V., Laher, R. R., Wozniak, P. R., Lee, W. H., Rebbapragada, U. D., Maguire, K., Sullivan, M., and Soumagnac, M. T. Mon . "Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova". United States. doi:10.1038/nphys4025. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436152.
@article{osti_1436152,
title = {Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova},
author = {Yaron, O. and Perley, D. A. and Gal-Yam, A. and Groh, J. H. and Horesh, A. and Ofek, E. O. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Sollerman, J. and Fransson, C. and Rubin, A. and Szabo, P. and Sapir, N. and Taddia, F. and Cenko, S. B. and Valenti, S. and Arcavi, I. and Howell, D. A. and Kasliwal, M. M. and Vreeswijk, P. M. and Khazov, D. and Fox, O. D. and Cao, Y. and Gnat, O. and Kelly, P. L. and Nugent, P. E. and Filippenko, A. V. and Laher, R. R. and Wozniak, P. R. and Lee, W. H. and Rebbapragada, U. D. and Maguire, K. and Sullivan, M. and Soumagnac, M. T.},
abstractNote = {With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, which sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF 13dqy= SN 2013fsa mere 1/43 h after explosion. Our rapid follow-up observations, which include multiwavelength photometry and extremely early (beginning at 1/46 h post-explosion) spectra, map the distribution of material in the immediate environment ( ‰210 15 cm) of the exploding star and establish that it was surrounded by circumstellar material (CSM) that was ejected during the final 1/41 yr prior to explosion at a high rate, around 10 '3 solar masses per year. The complete disappearance of flash-ionized emission lines within the first several days requires that the dense CSM be confined to within ‰210 15 cm, consistent with radio non-detections at 70-100 days. The observations indicate that iPTF 13dqy was a regular type II supernova; thus, the finding that the probable red supergiant progenitor of this common explosion ejected material at a highly elevated rate just prior to its demise suggests that pre-supernova instabilities may be common among exploding massive stars.},
doi = {10.1038/nphys4025},
journal = {Nature Physics},
issn = {1745-2473},
number = 5,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {2}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Interacting supernovae from photoionization-confined shells around red supergiant stars
journal, August 2014

  • Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.
  • Nature, Vol. 512, Issue 7514
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13522

Exploring the Optical Transient Sky with the Palomar Transient Factory
journal, December 2009

  • Rau, Arne; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 121, Issue 886
  • DOI: 10.1086/605911

Real-Time Detection and Rapid Multiwavelength Follow-Up Observations of a Highly Subluminous type ii-p Supernova from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey
journal, July 2011


Fundamental properties of core-collapse supernova and GRB progenitors: predicting the look of massive stars before death
journal, October 2013


SN 2009ip: CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGENITOR MASS-LOSS RATE
journal, April 2013


Presupernova Evolution of Massive Single and Binary Stars
journal, September 2012


Using machine learning for discovery in synoptic survey imaging data
journal, August 2013

  • Brink, Henrik; Richards, Joseph W.; Poznanski, Dovi
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 435, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1306

Setting the Stage for Circumstellar Interaction in Core-Collapse Supernovae. ii. Wave-Driven mass loss in Supernova Progenitors
journal, December 2013


The Palomar Transient Factory: System Overview, Performance, and First Results
journal, December 2009

  • Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Dekany, Richard G.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 121, Issue 886
  • DOI: 10.1086/648598

The Early Uv/Optical Emission from Core-Collapse Supernovae
journal, January 2011


An outburst from a massive star 40 days before a supernova explosion
journal, February 2013

  • Ofek, E. O.; Sullivan, M.; Cenko, S. B.
  • Nature, Vol. 494, Issue 7435
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11877

An Efficient Low Resolution and Moderate Resolution Spectrograph for the Hale Telescope
journal, June 1982

  • Oke, J. B.; Gunn, J. E.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 94
  • DOI: 10.1086/131027

Broad emission lines from the opaque electron-scattering environment of SN 1998S
journal, October 2001


Observed fractions of core-collapse supernova types and initial masses of their single and binary progenitor stars: Core-collapse supernova fractions
journal, March 2011


The Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
journal, April 1995

  • Oke, J. B.; Cohen, J. G.; Carr, M.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 107
  • DOI: 10.1086/133562

The unprecedented 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip: a luminous blue variable star becomes a true supernova
journal, February 2013

  • Mauerhan, Jon C.; Smith, Nathan; Filippenko, Alexei V.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 430, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt009

EARLY EMISSION FROM THE TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 1998S AT HIGH RESOLUTION
journal, June 2015


Toward Realistic Progenitors of Core-Collapse Supernovae
journal, May 2011


Massive stars exploding in a He-rich circumstellar medium - I. Type Ibn (SN 2006jc-like) events
journal, September 2008


The relationship between infrared, optical, and ultraviolet extinction
journal, October 1989

  • Cardelli, Jason A.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Mathis, John S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 345
  • DOI: 10.1086/167900

The Palomar Transient Factory Photometric Calibration
journal, January 2012

  • Ofek, E. O.; Laher, R.; Law, N.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 911
  • DOI: 10.1086/664065

PTF11iqb: cool supergiant mass-loss that bridges the gap between Type IIn and normal supernovae
journal, March 2015

  • Smith, Nathan; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Cenko, S. Bradley
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv354

The circumstellar environment of Wolf-Rayet stars and gamma-ray burst afterglows
journal, March 2006


HIGH-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SN 2010jl: THE FIRST 1100 DAYS
journal, December 2014


K -Corrections and Filter Transformations in the Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-Infrared
journal, January 2007

  • Blanton, Michael R.; Roweis, Sam
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 133, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/510127

The Automated Palomar 60 Inch Telescope
journal, October 2006

  • Cenko, S. Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Moon, Dae‐Sik
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 118, Issue 848
  • DOI: 10.1086/508366

Synchrotron Self‐Absorption in Radio Supernovae
journal, June 1998

  • Chevalier, Roger A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 499, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305676

A Wolf–Rayet-like progenitor of SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a stellar wind
journal, May 2014

  • Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, I.; Ofek, E. O.
  • Nature, Vol. 509, Issue 7501
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13304

The Remarkable Deaths of 9–11 Solar mass Stars
journal, August 2015


Optical and near-infrared coverage of SN 2004et: physical parameters and comparison with other Type IIP supernovae: Optical and NIR coverage of SN 2004et
journal, May 2010


CALTECH CORE-COLLAPSE PROJECT (CCCP) OBSERVATIONS OF TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE: TYPICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR PROGENITOR STARS
journal, December 2011


The Palomar Transient Factory photometric catalog 1.0
journal, August 2012

  • Ofek, E. O.; Laher, R.; Surace, J.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 918
  • DOI: 10.1086/666978

Radio Emission from Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursters
journal, September 2002


The Treatment of Non‐LTE Line Blanketing in Spherically Expanding Outflows
journal, March 1998

  • Hillier, D. John; Miller, D. L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 496, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/305350

WISeREP—An Interactive Supernova Data Repository
journal, July 2012

  • Yaron, Ofer; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 917
  • DOI: 10.1086/666656

Type ii Supernova Energetics and Comparison of Light Curves to Shock-Cooling Models
journal, March 2016


Radio and X‐Ray Emission as Probes of Type IIP Supernovae and Red Supergiant Mass Loss
journal, April 2006

  • Chevalier, Roger A.; Fransson, Claes; Nymark, Tanja K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/500528

The radio and X-ray emission from type II supernovae
journal, August 1982

  • Chevalier, R. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 259
  • DOI: 10.1086/160167

The Swift Gamma‐Ray Burst Mission
journal, August 2004

  • Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/422091

The UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey ZY JHK photometric system: passbands and synthetic colours
journal, April 2006


Type II-Plateau supernova radiation: dependences on progenitor and explosion properties
journal, June 2013

  • Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 433, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt861

Circumstellar medium around rotating massive stars at solar metallicity
journal, November 2013


SN 2010jl: OPTICAL TO HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS REVEAL AN EXPLOSION EMBEDDED IN A TEN SOLAR MASS COCOON
journal, January 2014


Photometric and spectroscopic properties of Type II-P supernovae
journal, June 2014

  • Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 442, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu955

Radio Emission and Particle Acceleration in SN 1993J
journal, December 1998

  • Fransson, Claes; Bjornsson, Claes‐Ingvar
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 509, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/306531

Toward a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II‐P Supernovae
journal, July 2006

  • Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 645, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/504413

PRECURSORS PRIOR TO TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS ARE COMMON: PRECURSOR RATES, PROPERTIES, AND CORRELATIONS
journal, June 2014


Circumstellar Emission from Type Ib and Ic Supernovae
journal, November 2006

  • Chevalier, Roger A.; Fransson, Claes
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 651, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/507606

FLASH SPECTROSCOPY: EMISSION LINES FROM THE IONIZED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND <10-DAY-OLD TYPE II SUPERNOVAE
journal, February 2016


Light Curves of Core-Collapse Supernovae with Substantial mass loss Using the new Open-Source Supernova Explosion code (Snec)
journal, November 2015

  • Morozova, Viktoriya; Piro, Anthony L.; Renzo, Mathieu
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 814, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/814/1/63

Evolution of Massive Stars with Pulsation-Driven Superwinds During the red Supergiant Phase
journal, June 2010


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The Carnegie Supernova Project I: Photometry data release of low-redshift stripped-envelope supernovae⋆⋆⋆
    journal, January 2018


    Diversity of supernovae and impostors shortly after explosion
    journal, January 2019