skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture-Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale: Part II

Abstract

Horizontal wells combined with successful multi-stage hydraulic fracture treatments are currently the most established method for effectively stimulating and enabling economic development of gas bearing organic-rich shale formations. Fracture cleanup in the Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) is critical to stimulation effectiveness and long-term well performance. However, fluid cleanup is often hampered by formation damage, and post-fracture well performance frequently falls below expectations. A systematic study of the factors that hinder fracture fluid cleanup in shale formations can help optimize fracture treatments and better quantify long term volumes of produced water and gas. Fracture fluid cleanup is a complex process influenced by multi-phase flow through porous media (relative permeability hysteresis, capillary pressure etc.), reservoir rock and fluid properties, fracture fluid properties, proppant placement, fracture treatment parameters, and subsequent flowback and field operations. Changing SRV and fracture conductivity as production progresses further adds to the complexity of this problem. Numerical simulation is the best, and most practical approach to investigate such a complicated blend of mechanisms, parameters, their interactions, and subsequent impact on fracture fluid cleanup and well deliverability. In this paper, a 3-dimensional, 2-phase, dual-porosity model was used to investigate the impact of multiphase flow, proppant crushing, proppant diagenesis, shut-in time,more » reservoir rock compaction, gas slippage, and gas desorption on fracture fluid cleanup, and well performance in Marcellus shale. The research findings have shed light on the factors that substantially constrains efficient fracture fluid cleanup in gas shales, and provided guidelines for improved fracture treatment designs and water management.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States). In-house Research
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1435765
Report Number(s):
NETL-PUB-20194
Journal ID: ISSN 1086-055X
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: SPE Journal; Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 02
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; hydraulic fracturing, cleanup, shale gas, unconventional natural gas, flowback, numerical modeling, reservoir simulation

Citation Formats

Seales, Maxian B., Dilmore, Robert, Ertekin, Turgay, and Wang, John Yilin. A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture-Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale: Part II. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2118/183632-PA.
Seales, Maxian B., Dilmore, Robert, Ertekin, Turgay, & Wang, John Yilin. A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture-Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale: Part II. United States. doi:10.2118/183632-PA.
Seales, Maxian B., Dilmore, Robert, Ertekin, Turgay, and Wang, John Yilin. Sat . "A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture-Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale: Part II". United States. doi:10.2118/183632-PA. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1435765.
@article{osti_1435765,
title = {A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture-Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale: Part II},
author = {Seales, Maxian B. and Dilmore, Robert and Ertekin, Turgay and Wang, John Yilin},
abstractNote = {Horizontal wells combined with successful multi-stage hydraulic fracture treatments are currently the most established method for effectively stimulating and enabling economic development of gas bearing organic-rich shale formations. Fracture cleanup in the Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) is critical to stimulation effectiveness and long-term well performance. However, fluid cleanup is often hampered by formation damage, and post-fracture well performance frequently falls below expectations. A systematic study of the factors that hinder fracture fluid cleanup in shale formations can help optimize fracture treatments and better quantify long term volumes of produced water and gas. Fracture fluid cleanup is a complex process influenced by multi-phase flow through porous media (relative permeability hysteresis, capillary pressure etc.), reservoir rock and fluid properties, fracture fluid properties, proppant placement, fracture treatment parameters, and subsequent flowback and field operations. Changing SRV and fracture conductivity as production progresses further adds to the complexity of this problem. Numerical simulation is the best, and most practical approach to investigate such a complicated blend of mechanisms, parameters, their interactions, and subsequent impact on fracture fluid cleanup and well deliverability. In this paper, a 3-dimensional, 2-phase, dual-porosity model was used to investigate the impact of multiphase flow, proppant crushing, proppant diagenesis, shut-in time, reservoir rock compaction, gas slippage, and gas desorption on fracture fluid cleanup, and well performance in Marcellus shale. The research findings have shed light on the factors that substantially constrains efficient fracture fluid cleanup in gas shales, and provided guidelines for improved fracture treatment designs and water management.},
doi = {10.2118/183632-PA},
journal = {SPE Journal},
number = 02,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Horizontal wells combined with successful multistage-hydraulic-fracture treatments are currently the most-established method for effectively stimulating and enabling economic development of gas-bearing organic-rich shale formations. Fracture cleanup in the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) is critical to stimulation effectiveness and long-term well performance. But, fluid cleanup is often hampered by formation damage, and post-fracture well performance frequently falls to less than expectations. A systematic study of the factors that hinder fracture-fluid cleanup in shale formations can help optimize fracture treatments and better quantify long-term volumes of produced water and gas. Fracture-fluid cleanup is a complex process influenced by mutliphase flow through porousmore » media (relative permeability hysteresis, capillary pressure), reservoir-rock and -fluid properties, fracture-fluid properties, proppant placement, fracture-treatment parameters, and subsequent flowback and field operations. Changing SRV and fracture conductivity as production progresses further adds to the complexity of this problem. Numerical simulation is the best and most-practical approach to investigate such a complicated blend of mechanisms, parameters, their interactions, and subsequent effect on fracture-fluid cleanup and well deliverability. Here, a 3D, two-phase, dual-porosity model was used to investigate the effect of mutliphase flow, proppant crushing, proppant diagenesis, shut-in time, reservoir-rock compaction, gas slippage, and gas desorption on fracture-fluid cleanup and well performance in Marcellus Shale. Our findings have shed light on the factors that substantially constrain efficient fracture-fluid cleanup in gas shales, and we have provided guidelines for improved fracture-treatment designs and water management.« less
  • Here, microbial activity in the produced water from hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells may potentially interfere with hydrocarbon production and cause damage to the well and surface infrastructure via corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. In this study, we surveyed the microbial abundance and community structure of produced water sampled from 42 Marcellus Shale wells in southwestern Pennsylvania (well age ranged from 150 to 1,846 days) to better understand the microbial diversity of produced water. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to assess taxonomy and utilized quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate the microbial abundance across allmore » 42 produced water samples. Bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales were found to be the most abundant organisms in the majority of the produced water samples, emphasizing their previously suggested role in hydraulic fracturing-related microbial activity. Statistical analyses identified correlations between well age and biocide formulation and the microbial community, in particular, the relative abundance of Halanaerobiales. We further investigated the role of members of the order Halanaerobiales in produced water by reconstructing and annotating a Halanaerobium draft genome (named MDAL1), using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metagenomic binning. The recovered draft genome was found to be closely related to the species H. congolense, an oil field isolate, and Halanaerobium sp. strain T82-1, also recovered from hydraulic fracturing produced water. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways revealed Halanaerobium sp. strain MDAL1 to have the potential for acid production, thiosulfate reduction, and biofilm formation, suggesting it to have the ability to contribute to corrosion, souring, and biofouling events in the hydraulic fracturing infrastructure.« less
  • Cited by 2
  • Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ∼375 kmmore » from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (εSr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where εSr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.« less
  • Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 kmmore » from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.« less