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Title: III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

Abstract

This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale.more » By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first high performance GaAsP/Si double junction cell, the demonstration of a new method that allow for rapid, quantitative and non-destructive characterization of dislocations (ECCI-electron channeling contrast imaging), the first observation, explanation and solution of the now commonly reported lifetime degradation and recovery phenomena in III-V/Si MOCVD growth, the first demonstration of a high performance SiGe cell with a bandgap of 0.9 eV, amongst other highlights. The impact of the program on the international community has been significant. At the start of our FPACE1 project and for the immediate prior years, 1-2 conference papers/annually were presented at IEEE PVSC. Once FPACE1 commenced in 2011, related efforts sprouted across the US, Europe and Asia and by 2015 there were 26 papers presented on III-V/Si multijunctions in the 2015 PVSC, demonstrating the excitement that was stimulated by the results of this FPACE1 effort.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); SolAero Technologies Corp., Albuequerqe, NM (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1435637
Report Number(s):
DOE-OSU-5398-rev3
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0005398
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; III-V/Si integration; III-V on active Si; GaP/Si; GaAsP/Si; GaAsP; ECCI; electron channelling contrast imaging; metamorphic buffers

Citation Formats

Ringel, Steven. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1435637.
Ringel, Steven. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics. United States. doi:10.2172/1435637.
Ringel, Steven. Fri . "III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics". United States. doi:10.2172/1435637. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1435637.
@article{osti_1435637,
title = {III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics},
author = {Ringel, Steven},
abstractNote = {This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first high performance GaAsP/Si double junction cell, the demonstration of a new method that allow for rapid, quantitative and non-destructive characterization of dislocations (ECCI-electron channeling contrast imaging), the first observation, explanation and solution of the now commonly reported lifetime degradation and recovery phenomena in III-V/Si MOCVD growth, the first demonstration of a high performance SiGe cell with a bandgap of 0.9 eV, amongst other highlights. The impact of the program on the international community has been significant. At the start of our FPACE1 project and for the immediate prior years, 1-2 conference papers/annually were presented at IEEE PVSC. Once FPACE1 commenced in 2011, related efforts sprouted across the US, Europe and Asia and by 2015 there were 26 papers presented on III-V/Si multijunctions in the 2015 PVSC, demonstrating the excitement that was stimulated by the results of this FPACE1 effort.},
doi = {10.2172/1435637},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}