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Title: Novel Cold Plasma System for the Reaction of CO 2 and Liquid Feed Streams for the Production of Value Added Products Final Report

Abstract

In addition to ethanol and other high value chemicals, fermentation produces a waste gas of carbon dioxide in a nitrogen-rich stream. Although the CO 2 content is low in this waste stream, its aggregate amount is substantial when considering that over 142 million tons of fermentation derived product is made at present amounting to over 7 million tons of CO 2 emitted. In some high-volume fermentation systems, the CO 2 is recycled and used for carbonation, however, many processes simply vent the CO 2 adding to greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere. Historically, thermochemical methods have been used to convert CO 2 into value added products. Due to the high thermodynamic stability of CO 2, most of these processes require high pressure and/or high temperature operations along with addition of highly reactive co-reagents and expensive catalysts. Low cost, environmentally friendly processes are needed to convert CO 2 waste gas into value added products or intermediates that can be used in the production of biofuel or other bio-based products. During the Phase I program, Skyhaven Systems LLC used a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor system to convert CO 2 and CO 2/water feed streams into carbon monoxide, syngas, and lightmore » hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane. Carbon dioxide conversion and energy efficiency were evaluated for various CO 2 concentrations, feed flowrates, and applied power. In addition, CO 2 containing simulated fermentation off-gas exhaust feeds were tested as were CO 2 exhaust gas streams from Skyhaven’s working microbial electrolysis cell. Reactor scale up to a four-tube dielectric barrier discharge system was evaluated for similar feed streams. Finally, methods for increasing reactor performance were investigated including the addition of dielectric packing materials to the plasma zone. Skyhaven was able to achieve high energy efficiency in our DBD reactor system for the conversion of CO 2/N 2 feed streams. Efficiencies were higher than those seen in the literature for similar reactor systems and feed streams. In addition, the DBD system was able to convert CO 2 and water to syngas; however, lower reactor efficiencies were observed similar to those seen by others in the literature. A scaled-up 4-tube system was designed and assembled. The scaled-up reactor system had low efficiency due to an issue with the power supply; however, proof of principal was demonstrated and a path to mitigating power issues was determined for the Phase II program.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Skyhaven Systems, LLC, Westford, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Skyhaven Systems, LLC, Westford, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1435501
Report Number(s):
DOE-Skyhaven-17696
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0017696
Type / Phase:
SBIR (Phase I)
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; CO2; non-thermal plasma; syngas fermentation; dielectric barrier discharge

Citation Formats

Foti, Robyn Accardi, Carr, Daniel, Salley, Edward, and Kimble, Michael. Novel Cold Plasma System for the Reaction of CO2 and Liquid Feed Streams for the Production of Value Added Products Final Report. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Foti, Robyn Accardi, Carr, Daniel, Salley, Edward, & Kimble, Michael. Novel Cold Plasma System for the Reaction of CO2 and Liquid Feed Streams for the Production of Value Added Products Final Report. United States.
Foti, Robyn Accardi, Carr, Daniel, Salley, Edward, and Kimble, Michael. Tue . "Novel Cold Plasma System for the Reaction of CO2 and Liquid Feed Streams for the Production of Value Added Products Final Report". United States.
@article{osti_1435501,
title = {Novel Cold Plasma System for the Reaction of CO2 and Liquid Feed Streams for the Production of Value Added Products Final Report},
author = {Foti, Robyn Accardi and Carr, Daniel and Salley, Edward and Kimble, Michael},
abstractNote = {In addition to ethanol and other high value chemicals, fermentation produces a waste gas of carbon dioxide in a nitrogen-rich stream. Although the CO2 content is low in this waste stream, its aggregate amount is substantial when considering that over 142 million tons of fermentation derived product is made at present amounting to over 7 million tons of CO2 emitted. In some high-volume fermentation systems, the CO2 is recycled and used for carbonation, however, many processes simply vent the CO2 adding to greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere. Historically, thermochemical methods have been used to convert CO2 into value added products. Due to the high thermodynamic stability of CO2, most of these processes require high pressure and/or high temperature operations along with addition of highly reactive co-reagents and expensive catalysts. Low cost, environmentally friendly processes are needed to convert CO2 waste gas into value added products or intermediates that can be used in the production of biofuel or other bio-based products. During the Phase I program, Skyhaven Systems LLC used a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor system to convert CO2 and CO2/water feed streams into carbon monoxide, syngas, and light hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane. Carbon dioxide conversion and energy efficiency were evaluated for various CO2 concentrations, feed flowrates, and applied power. In addition, CO2 containing simulated fermentation off-gas exhaust feeds were tested as were CO2 exhaust gas streams from Skyhaven’s working microbial electrolysis cell. Reactor scale up to a four-tube dielectric barrier discharge system was evaluated for similar feed streams. Finally, methods for increasing reactor performance were investigated including the addition of dielectric packing materials to the plasma zone. Skyhaven was able to achieve high energy efficiency in our DBD reactor system for the conversion of CO2/N2 feed streams. Efficiencies were higher than those seen in the literature for similar reactor systems and feed streams. In addition, the DBD system was able to convert CO2 and water to syngas; however, lower reactor efficiencies were observed similar to those seen by others in the literature. A scaled-up 4-tube system was designed and assembled. The scaled-up reactor system had low efficiency due to an issue with the power supply; however, proof of principal was demonstrated and a path to mitigating power issues was determined for the Phase II program.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Technical Report:
This technical report may be released as soon as May 2, 2022
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