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Title: Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Modifications in Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Advanced Alloys

Abstract

This final technical report summarizes the research performed during October 2014 and December 2017, with a focus on investigating the radiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property modifications in optimized advanced alloys for sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) structural applications. To accomplish these objectives, the radiation responses of several different advanced alloys, including austenitic steel Alloy 709 (A709) and 316H, and ferritic/ martensitic Fe–9Cr steels T91 and G92, were investigated using a combination of microstructure characterizations and nanoindentation measurements. Different types of irradiation, including ex situ bulk ion irradiation and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ion irradiation, were employed in this study. Radiation-induced dislocations, precipitates, and voids were characterized by TEM. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and/or atom probe tomography (APT) were used to study radiation-induced segregation and precipitation. Nanoindentation was used for hardness measurements to study irradiation hardening. Austenitic A709 and 316H was bulk-irradiated by 3.5 MeV Fe ++ ions to up to 150 peak dpa at 400, 500, and 600°. Compared to neutron-irradiated stainless steel (SS) 316, the Frank loop density of ion-irradiated A709 shows similar dose dependence at 400°, but very different temperature dependence. Due to the noticeable difference in the initial microstructure ofmore » A709 and 316H, no systematic comparison on the Frank loops in A709 vs 316H was made. It would be helpful that future ion irradiation study on 316 stainless steel could be conducted to directly compare the temperature dependence of Frank loop density in ion-irradiated 316 SS with that in neutron-irradiated 316 SS. In addition, future neutron irradiation on A709 at 400–600° at relative high dose (≥10 dpa) can be carried out to compare with ion-irradiated A709. The radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of Ni and Si was observed in both A709 and 316H in all irradiated conditions and was found at various sinks: line dislocations, dislocation loops, void surfaces, carbide-matrix interfaces, etc. Radiation also induced the formation of Ni,Si-rich precipitates. As suggested in a previous study on neutron-irradiated 316 stainless steel, one possible consequence of the significant RIS of Si is that the enrichment at defect sinks depletes the silicon in the matrix, which can lead to enhanced void nucleation rate. The enrichment of Ni and Si is accompanied by the depletion of Cr at defect sinks, which could also affect the corrosion resistance. Radiation-induced change in the orientation relationship of pre-existing MX precipitates was observed at 600°. It is believed that this change is associated with the network dislocations formed under irradiation. The underlying mechanism is still not well understood. This change could be a positive indication that the MX precipitates can survive high density network dislocations. It would be helpful if neutron irradiation at similar dose conditions could be carried out to verify that this effect is not unique for ion irradiation. Intragranular Cr-rich carbides with a core-shell structure, i.e. Cr-rich carbide core and Ni,Si-rich shell was found at 500° and 600° in the highest dose (150 peak dpa) specimens. Coarse voids (30 nm in diameter) were only commonly found at 500° in the 50 and 150 peak dpa specimens in regions less than 750 nm in depth. The highest swelling for A709 irradiated to 50 and 150 peak dpa at 500° is about 0.44% and 0.37%, respectively. Due to the choice of 100 degree temperature intervals, this study did not attempt to precisely identify peak void swelling conditions, merely the range of irradiation temperatures where this could be a concern. It is known high-dose ion irradiation can significantly suppress void nucleation. Future neutron irradiation in the 500–600° range (without considering the temperature shift) is needed to determine the onset of accelerated void swelling (possibly at lower dose).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];
  1. Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1434640
Report Number(s):
14-6762
14-6762
DOE Contract Number:  
NE0008291
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Stubbins, James, Heuser, Brent, Hosemann, Peter, and Liu, Xiang. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Modifications in Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Advanced Alloys. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1434640.
Stubbins, James, Heuser, Brent, Hosemann, Peter, & Liu, Xiang. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Modifications in Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Advanced Alloys. United States. doi:10.2172/1434640.
Stubbins, James, Heuser, Brent, Hosemann, Peter, and Liu, Xiang. Tue . "Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Modifications in Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Advanced Alloys". United States. doi:10.2172/1434640. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1434640.
@article{osti_1434640,
title = {Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Modifications in Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Advanced Alloys},
author = {Stubbins, James and Heuser, Brent and Hosemann, Peter and Liu, Xiang},
abstractNote = {This final technical report summarizes the research performed during October 2014 and December 2017, with a focus on investigating the radiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property modifications in optimized advanced alloys for sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) structural applications. To accomplish these objectives, the radiation responses of several different advanced alloys, including austenitic steel Alloy 709 (A709) and 316H, and ferritic/ martensitic Fe–9Cr steels T91 and G92, were investigated using a combination of microstructure characterizations and nanoindentation measurements. Different types of irradiation, including ex situ bulk ion irradiation and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ion irradiation, were employed in this study. Radiation-induced dislocations, precipitates, and voids were characterized by TEM. Scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and/or atom probe tomography (APT) were used to study radiation-induced segregation and precipitation. Nanoindentation was used for hardness measurements to study irradiation hardening. Austenitic A709 and 316H was bulk-irradiated by 3.5 MeV Fe++ ions to up to 150 peak dpa at 400, 500, and 600°. Compared to neutron-irradiated stainless steel (SS) 316, the Frank loop density of ion-irradiated A709 shows similar dose dependence at 400°, but very different temperature dependence. Due to the noticeable difference in the initial microstructure of A709 and 316H, no systematic comparison on the Frank loops in A709 vs 316H was made. It would be helpful that future ion irradiation study on 316 stainless steel could be conducted to directly compare the temperature dependence of Frank loop density in ion-irradiated 316 SS with that in neutron-irradiated 316 SS. In addition, future neutron irradiation on A709 at 400–600° at relative high dose (≥10 dpa) can be carried out to compare with ion-irradiated A709. The radiation-induced segregation (RIS) of Ni and Si was observed in both A709 and 316H in all irradiated conditions and was found at various sinks: line dislocations, dislocation loops, void surfaces, carbide-matrix interfaces, etc. Radiation also induced the formation of Ni,Si-rich precipitates. As suggested in a previous study on neutron-irradiated 316 stainless steel, one possible consequence of the significant RIS of Si is that the enrichment at defect sinks depletes the silicon in the matrix, which can lead to enhanced void nucleation rate. The enrichment of Ni and Si is accompanied by the depletion of Cr at defect sinks, which could also affect the corrosion resistance. Radiation-induced change in the orientation relationship of pre-existing MX precipitates was observed at 600°. It is believed that this change is associated with the network dislocations formed under irradiation. The underlying mechanism is still not well understood. This change could be a positive indication that the MX precipitates can survive high density network dislocations. It would be helpful if neutron irradiation at similar dose conditions could be carried out to verify that this effect is not unique for ion irradiation. Intragranular Cr-rich carbides with a core-shell structure, i.e. Cr-rich carbide core and Ni,Si-rich shell was found at 500° and 600° in the highest dose (150 peak dpa) specimens. Coarse voids (30 nm in diameter) were only commonly found at 500° in the 50 and 150 peak dpa specimens in regions less than 750 nm in depth. The highest swelling for A709 irradiated to 50 and 150 peak dpa at 500° is about 0.44% and 0.37%, respectively. Due to the choice of 100 degree temperature intervals, this study did not attempt to precisely identify peak void swelling conditions, merely the range of irradiation temperatures where this could be a concern. It is known high-dose ion irradiation can significantly suppress void nucleation. Future neutron irradiation in the 500–600° range (without considering the temperature shift) is needed to determine the onset of accelerated void swelling (possibly at lower dose).},
doi = {10.2172/1434640},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}