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Title: GoAmazon2014/5 campaign points to deep-inflow approach to deep convection across scales

Abstract

Representations of strongly precipitating deep-convective systems in climate models are among the most important factors in their simulation. Parameterizations of these motions face the dual challenge of unclear pathways to including mesoscale organization and high sensitivity of convection to approximations of turbulent entrainment of environmental air. Ill-constrained entrainment processes can even affect global average climate sensitivity under global warming. Multiinstrument observations from the Department of Energy GoAmazon2014/5 field campaign suggest that an alternative formulation from radar-derived dominant updraft structure yields a strong relationship of precipitation to buoyancy in both mesoscale and smaller-scale convective systems. This simultaneously provides a key step toward representing the influence of mesoscale convection in climate models and sidesteps a problematic dependence on traditional entrainment rates. A substantial fraction of precipitation is associated with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), which are currently poorly represented in climate models. Convective parameterizations are highly sensitive to the assumptions of an entraining plume model, in which high equivalent potential temperature air from the boundary layer is modified via turbulent entrainment. Here we show, using multiinstrument evidence from the Green Ocean Amazon field campaign (2014–2015; GoAmazon2014/5), that an empirically constrained weighting for inflow of environmental air based on radar wind profiler estimates ofmore » vertical velocity and mass flux yields a strong relationship between resulting buoyancy measures and precipitation statistics. This deep-inflow weighting has no free parameter for entrainment in the conventional sense, but to a leading approximation is simply a statement of the geometry of the inflow. The structure further suggests the weighting could consistently apply even for coherent inflow structures noted in field campaign studies for MCSs over tropical oceans. For radar precipitation retrievals averaged over climate model grid scales at the GoAmazon2014/5 site, the use of deep-inflow mixing yields a sharp increase in the probability and magnitude of precipitation with increasing buoyancy. Furthermore, this applies for both mesoscale and smaller-scale convection. Results from reanalysis and satellite data show that this holds more generally: Deep-inflow mixing yields a strong precipitation–buoyancy relation across the tropics. Lastly, deep-inflow mixing may thus circumvent inadequacies of current parameterizations while helping to bridge the gap toward representing mesoscale convection in climate models.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1433405
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1454817
Report Number(s):
BNL-205762-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; SC0011074
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 115; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; tropical precipitation; moist convection; mesoscale convective system; convective parameterization; entrainment

Citation Formats

Schiro, Kathleen A., Ahmed, Fiaz, Giangrande, Scott E., and Neelin, J. David. GoAmazon2014/5 campaign points to deep-inflow approach to deep convection across scales. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1719842115.
Schiro, Kathleen A., Ahmed, Fiaz, Giangrande, Scott E., & Neelin, J. David. GoAmazon2014/5 campaign points to deep-inflow approach to deep convection across scales. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1719842115.
Schiro, Kathleen A., Ahmed, Fiaz, Giangrande, Scott E., and Neelin, J. David. Tue . "GoAmazon2014/5 campaign points to deep-inflow approach to deep convection across scales". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1719842115.
@article{osti_1433405,
title = {GoAmazon2014/5 campaign points to deep-inflow approach to deep convection across scales},
author = {Schiro, Kathleen A. and Ahmed, Fiaz and Giangrande, Scott E. and Neelin, J. David},
abstractNote = {Representations of strongly precipitating deep-convective systems in climate models are among the most important factors in their simulation. Parameterizations of these motions face the dual challenge of unclear pathways to including mesoscale organization and high sensitivity of convection to approximations of turbulent entrainment of environmental air. Ill-constrained entrainment processes can even affect global average climate sensitivity under global warming. Multiinstrument observations from the Department of Energy GoAmazon2014/5 field campaign suggest that an alternative formulation from radar-derived dominant updraft structure yields a strong relationship of precipitation to buoyancy in both mesoscale and smaller-scale convective systems. This simultaneously provides a key step toward representing the influence of mesoscale convection in climate models and sidesteps a problematic dependence on traditional entrainment rates. A substantial fraction of precipitation is associated with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), which are currently poorly represented in climate models. Convective parameterizations are highly sensitive to the assumptions of an entraining plume model, in which high equivalent potential temperature air from the boundary layer is modified via turbulent entrainment. Here we show, using multiinstrument evidence from the Green Ocean Amazon field campaign (2014–2015; GoAmazon2014/5), that an empirically constrained weighting for inflow of environmental air based on radar wind profiler estimates of vertical velocity and mass flux yields a strong relationship between resulting buoyancy measures and precipitation statistics. This deep-inflow weighting has no free parameter for entrainment in the conventional sense, but to a leading approximation is simply a statement of the geometry of the inflow. The structure further suggests the weighting could consistently apply even for coherent inflow structures noted in field campaign studies for MCSs over tropical oceans. For radar precipitation retrievals averaged over climate model grid scales at the GoAmazon2014/5 site, the use of deep-inflow mixing yields a sharp increase in the probability and magnitude of precipitation with increasing buoyancy. Furthermore, this applies for both mesoscale and smaller-scale convection. Results from reanalysis and satellite data show that this holds more generally: Deep-inflow mixing yields a strong precipitation–buoyancy relation across the tropics. Lastly, deep-inflow mixing may thus circumvent inadequacies of current parameterizations while helping to bridge the gap toward representing mesoscale convection in climate models.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1719842115},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = ,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Tue Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1073/pnas.1719842115

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Works referenced in this record:

Convective cloud vertical velocity and mass-flux characteristics from radar wind profiler observations during GoAmazon2014/5
journal, November 2016

  • Giangrande, Scott E.; Toto, Tami; Jensen, Michael P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 121, Issue 21, p. 12,891-12,913
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025303

Deep Convection and Column Water Vapor over Tropical Land versus Tropical Ocean: A Comparison between the Amazon and the Tropical Western Pacific
journal, October 2016

  • Schiro, Kathleen A.; Neelin, J. David; Adams, David K.
  • Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 73, Issue 10, p. 4043-4063
  • DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0119.1