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Title: Analysis of Field Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Data: Cranfield 3D-VSP Project



Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Laboratory - Energy Data eXchange; NETL
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
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Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
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Data Type:
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Robert Dilmore. Analysis of Field Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Data: Cranfield 3D-VSP Project. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.18141/1433154.
Robert Dilmore. Analysis of Field Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Data: Cranfield 3D-VSP Project. United States. doi:10.18141/1433154.
Robert Dilmore. Thu . "Analysis of Field Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Data: Cranfield 3D-VSP Project". United States. doi:10.18141/1433154.
title = {Analysis of Field Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) Data: Cranfield 3D-VSP Project},
author = {Robert Dilmore},
abstractNote = {NRAP TRS},
doi = {10.18141/1433154},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Apr 06 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Apr 06 00:00:00 EDT 2017}


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  • To understand any geophysical data, geologic information is necessary. This thesis will begin with a summary of the geology of the Salton Trough region and the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). The information available from the SSSDP will also be summarized. After the geologic summary, the design of the VSP will be discussed, including acquisition equipment and procedures. The data processing procedures and software used will be discussed as a separate section. Processing procedures will also be described at various times in the thesis where more specialized procedures are used. Data analysis makes up the bulk of the thesis andmore » it is divided into a number of sections detailing the basic VSP interpretation, the anisotropy analysis and the fracture detection and orientation analysis. A combined interpretation of the results, with probable geologic causes for observed events, is presented as a separate section from the data analysis. Finally, a summary of results for each of the goals stated above will be given. The reader should note that a large volume of data were collected and various display methods were used (from the standard wiggle-trace to three-component hodographs). Much of these data are left in the appendices with important or representative figures given in the body of the thesis. Also given in the appendices are listings of FORTRAN programs developed in conjunction with the thesis work. 46 refs., 63 figs., 12 tabs.« less
  • For the past several years LBL has been carrying out experiments at various fractured rock sites to determine the fundamental nature of the propagation of seismic waves in fractured media. These experiments have been utilizing high frequency (1000 to 10000 Hz.) signals in a cross-hole configuration at scales of several tens of meters. Three component sources and receivers are used to map fracture density, and orientation. The goal of the experiments has been to relate the seismological parameters to the hydrological parameters, if possible, in order to provide a more accurate description of a starting model for hydrological characterization. Themore » work is ultimately aimed at the characterization and monitoring of the Yucca Mountain site for the storage of nuclear waste. In addition to these controlled experiments multicomponent VSP work has been carried out at several sites to determine fracture characteristics. The results to date indicate that both P-wave and S-wave can be used to map the location of fractures. In addition, fractures that are open and conductive are much more visible to seismic waves that non-conductive fractures. The results of these tests indicate direct use in an unsaturated environment. 12 refs., 10 figs.« less
  • The initial goal of the three-dimensional (3-D) vertical seismic profiling (VSP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was to characterize seismic wave velocities and frequencies below the vadose zone in order to design the acquisition geometry for a high-resolution 3-D seismic reflection survey. VSPs are also used routinely to link surface seismic data with well logs. However, a test of the two-dimensional (2-D) seismic line recorded at the LLNL Livermore Site in the spring of 1994 indicated that obtaining high-quality reflection images below the vadose zone, but shallower than about 160 ft, would require an expensive, very finely sampled surveymore » ({gt} 1-m receiver spacing). This paper presents the difficulties encountered during initial data acquisition and processing, and attempts to alleviate the difficulties in the field and laboratory.« less
  • Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO 2 in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO 2 storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO 2 were present in the deep subsurface. Injectionmore » testing with brine and CO 2 was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole – including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite – at 1152–2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO 2 was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter.« less