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Title: Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Optical Components.


Abstract not provided.

; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proposed for presentation at the 12th Pacific Rim Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology held May 21-26, 2017 in waikoloa village, Hawaii.
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Choi, Junoh, Cook, Adam, Diantonio, Christopher, Jared, Bradley Howell, and Winrow, Edward G. Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Optical Components.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Choi, Junoh, Cook, Adam, Diantonio, Christopher, Jared, Bradley Howell, & Winrow, Edward G. Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Optical Components.. United States.
Choi, Junoh, Cook, Adam, Diantonio, Christopher, Jared, Bradley Howell, and Winrow, Edward G. Mon . "Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Optical Components.". United States. doi:.
title = {Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Optical Components.},
author = {Choi, Junoh and Cook, Adam and Diantonio, Christopher and Jared, Bradley Howell and Winrow, Edward G.},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}

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  • The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system has the capacity to print structures on the order of several meters at a rate exceeding 50 kg/h, thereby having the potential to significantly impact the production of components in automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. However, a primary issue that limits the functional use of such parts is mechanical anisotropy. The strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This is largely due to poor bonding between the printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transitionmore » temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. This work explores the use of infrared heating to increase the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. The material used in this study was acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber by weight. Significant improvements in z-strength were observed for the parts whose surface temperature was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating. Parameters such as print speed, nozzle diameter and extrusion temperature were also found to impact the heat input required to enhance interlayer adhesion without significantly degrading the polymer and compromising on surface finish.« less
  • Coated ZnSe optical components are irradiated with high-power, pulsed CO{sub 2} laser radiation ({lambda} = 10.6 {mu}m, pulse length - 100 ns) at fluences up to 250 J/cm{sup 2}. The components are characterized at various stages of irradiation by optical microscopy, interferometric microscopy, profilometry, surface chemical analysis (x-ray photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopy), and surface structural analysis (micro-Raman spectroscopy). Two types of coating damage occur within the irradiated area of the component: a breaking apart of the ZnSe overlayer of the coating system over relatively large areas resulting in a network structure, and the formation of isolated craters of diametermore » {approximately}30-50 {mu}m extending in depth {approximately}5 {mu}m through the coating system down to the ZnSe substrate. Chemically, the irradiated area is characterized by an oxidation of both Zn and Se and an increase in the stoichiometric ratio of Zn to Se. These effects are especially pronounced at the crater defects, and are attributed to localized optical absorption, leading to thermal stress and chemical reactions of Zn and Se with atmospheric or adsorbed water and/or oxygen. Structurally, the coatings exhibit a polycrystalline structure with no orientation of the individual grains. During irradiation the grain size diminishes giving, in addition, indication for built - in stress and partial melting at high laser fluences.« less
  • Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact ofmore » the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii) systems development, (iv) material feedstock, (v) process planning, (vi) residual stress & distortion, (vii) post-processing, (viii) qualification of parts, (ix) supply chain and (x) business case. Furthermore, an open innovation network methodology was proposed to accelerate the development and deployment of new large-scale metal additive manufacturing technology with the goal of creating a new generation of high deposition rate equipment, affordable feed stocks, and large metallic components to enhance America’s economic competitiveness.« less