skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Final Scientific/Technical Report

Abstract

The research supported by this grant focused on modeling liquid water from basic microscopic theory and on developing advanced methodologies for molecular simulation and electronic structure calculation of large and disordered systems. Water is arguably the most important molecule on earth: without it there would be no life, as we know it. Water does not behave as a simple liquid. Understanding its unique and anomalous properties at the molecular level has been the focus of intense study during the entire last century and still is a major goal of research today. To address the problem we adopted a multipronged approach that included methodological and algorithmic developments as well as simulations of important model systems. We made progress on several key issues. (i) We implemented accurate electronic structure schemes for modeling water from quantum mechanical theory that make accessible in simulations processes driven by formation and breaking of chemical bonds. We studied in this way neat bulk water and simple solvated ions. We could understand, in particular, why hydronium, i.e. the positive water ion, diffuses faster than its negative counterpart, the hydroxyl, solving a 200-year-old ionic mystery of water, as reported in a news article featuring our study on Chemistry World,more » the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry (U.K.). (ii) Using advanced statistical mechanical techniques we studied water in the deeply undercooled regime, which may hold the clue to understanding many of the water anomalies. These conditions are currently only accessible to simulations based on empirical force fields. We found that deeply undercooled water, as described by the popular force field ST2, possesses a secondary critical point, below which it would spontaneously separate into two liquids, one of low-density (LDL) and one of high-density (HDL), much in the same way in which water and oil phase-separate at room temperature. The secondary critical point is supported indirectly by many experiments, but rapid ice nucleation has so far hindered direct observation. In related studies we gained new insight on the connection of the two metastable liquids with the two corresponding amorphous ice phases, LDA and HDA, which are observed experimentally. (iii) We developed and implemented several new algorithms for computing the electronic structure of large systems and to accelerate the calculation of electron exchange energies. We applied these methodologies to model nanomaterials, such as nanoribbons and nanoflakes, and to study water absorption and splitting on nanomaterials. (iv) We developed new local order descriptors. (v) In the last year of the project we developed a methodology based on deep neural networks to construct model interatomic potentials that can accurately reproduce ab-initio quantum mechanical simulations at the computational cost of empirical force fields. These potentials will make possible to access the size and time scales that are currently only accessible with empirical force fields without loosing the predictive power of ab-initio simulations.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1431663
Report Number(s):
Final report: DOE-Princeton 8626-1
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0008626
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Car, Roberto. Final Scientific/Technical Report. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1431663.
Car, Roberto. Final Scientific/Technical Report. United States. doi:10.2172/1431663.
Car, Roberto. Fri . "Final Scientific/Technical Report". United States. doi:10.2172/1431663. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1431663.
@article{osti_1431663,
title = {Final Scientific/Technical Report},
author = {Car, Roberto},
abstractNote = {The research supported by this grant focused on modeling liquid water from basic microscopic theory and on developing advanced methodologies for molecular simulation and electronic structure calculation of large and disordered systems. Water is arguably the most important molecule on earth: without it there would be no life, as we know it. Water does not behave as a simple liquid. Understanding its unique and anomalous properties at the molecular level has been the focus of intense study during the entire last century and still is a major goal of research today. To address the problem we adopted a multipronged approach that included methodological and algorithmic developments as well as simulations of important model systems. We made progress on several key issues. (i) We implemented accurate electronic structure schemes for modeling water from quantum mechanical theory that make accessible in simulations processes driven by formation and breaking of chemical bonds. We studied in this way neat bulk water and simple solvated ions. We could understand, in particular, why hydronium, i.e. the positive water ion, diffuses faster than its negative counterpart, the hydroxyl, solving a 200-year-old ionic mystery of water, as reported in a news article featuring our study on Chemistry World, the magazine of the Royal Society of Chemistry (U.K.). (ii) Using advanced statistical mechanical techniques we studied water in the deeply undercooled regime, which may hold the clue to understanding many of the water anomalies. These conditions are currently only accessible to simulations based on empirical force fields. We found that deeply undercooled water, as described by the popular force field ST2, possesses a secondary critical point, below which it would spontaneously separate into two liquids, one of low-density (LDL) and one of high-density (HDL), much in the same way in which water and oil phase-separate at room temperature. The secondary critical point is supported indirectly by many experiments, but rapid ice nucleation has so far hindered direct observation. In related studies we gained new insight on the connection of the two metastable liquids with the two corresponding amorphous ice phases, LDA and HDA, which are observed experimentally. (iii) We developed and implemented several new algorithms for computing the electronic structure of large systems and to accelerate the calculation of electron exchange energies. We applied these methodologies to model nanomaterials, such as nanoribbons and nanoflakes, and to study water absorption and splitting on nanomaterials. (iv) We developed new local order descriptors. (v) In the last year of the project we developed a methodology based on deep neural networks to construct model interatomic potentials that can accurately reproduce ab-initio quantum mechanical simulations at the computational cost of empirical force fields. These potentials will make possible to access the size and time scales that are currently only accessible with empirical force fields without loosing the predictive power of ab-initio simulations.},
doi = {10.2172/1431663},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}