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Title: Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials 2010-2015.

Abstract

Wind turbine blades are designed to several major structural conditions, including tip deflection, strength and b uckling during severe loading, as well as very high numbers of fatigue cycles and various service environments. The MSU Database Program has, since 1989, addressed the broad range of properties needed for current and potential blade materials through stati c and fatigue testing and test development in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and wind industry and supplier partners. This report is the latest in a series, giving test results and analysis for the period 2010 - 2015. Program data are compiled in a public database [1] and other reports and publications given in the cited references. The report begins with an executive summary and introductory material including background discussion of previous related studies. Section 3 describes experimental methods including processing, test methods, instrumentation and test development. Section 4 provides static tension, compression and shear stress - strain properties in three directions using coupons sectioned from a thick infused unidirectional glass/epoxy laminate. The nonlinear, shear dominated static properties were characterized with loading - u nloading - reloading (LUR) tests in tension and compression to increasing load levels, for +-45O laminates. Section 5 explores the originsmore » of tensile fatigue sensitivity in glass fiber dominated laminates with variations in fabric architecture including speci ally prepared fabrics and aligned strand laminates. Several types of resins are considered, with variations in resin toughness and bonding to fibers, as well as cure cycle variations for an epoxy. Conclusions are drawn as to the limits of tensile fatigue r esistance and the effects of resin type and fabric architecture, including the behavior of a commercial aligned glass strand product. Interactions between cyclic fatigue response and creep are addressed for off - axis (+-45O) glass/epoxy laminates in Sectio n 6. The nonlinear fatigue and creep stress - strain and cumulative strain response are characterized in tension and compression as a function of stress level, cycles and cumulative time, using square and sinewave loading over a broad range of frequency. The results are analyzed in terms of the cycles and cumulative time under load. A cumulative strain failure criterion is established, and used to construct shear and tension constant life diagrams (CLD's) with data for nine R - values. The effects of a more duc tile urethne resin are also explored. A previous study of thick adhesives testing is extended to mixed mode fracture mechanics testing in Section 7. Mechanisms of static and fatigue crack extension near the laminate adherend interface are reported in deta il. Data are presented for mixed mode adhesive fracture, compared to mixed mode fracture in ply delamination. Fatigue crack growth exponents are also developed for a mixed mode cracked lap shear coupon. The data for fatigue trends and relative failure stra ins and exponents are compared for various blade component materials in Section 8. The effects of temperature and seawater saturation are considered for selected materials of interest for wind and hydrokinetic turbine blades in Section 9. Section 10 gives detailed conclusions for each section. A cknowledgements The research presented in this report was carried out under Sandia National Laboratories purchase orders 1325028 an d 1543945 between 2010 and 2015, with support from the DOE Wind and Water Technologies Office . In addition to the authors listed, significant contributions were made by Patrick Flaherty, Pancastya Agastra, Michael Schuster, and Michael Voth. Industry m aterials suppliers include Vectorply, Saertex, OCV, AGY, Bayer, Ashland, 3M and Nextel. Industry suppliers with significant contributions to the study were Hexion, PPG, Reichhold, Gurit and NEPTCO. Intentionally Left Blank« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1431256
Report Number(s):
SAND-2016-1441
619452
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY

Citation Formats

Mandell, John F., Samborsky, Daniel D., Miller, David A., Agastra, Pancasatya, and Sears, Aaron T. Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials 2010-2015.. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1431256.
Mandell, John F., Samborsky, Daniel D., Miller, David A., Agastra, Pancasatya, & Sears, Aaron T. Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials 2010-2015.. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1431256
Mandell, John F., Samborsky, Daniel D., Miller, David A., Agastra, Pancasatya, and Sears, Aaron T. Mon . "Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials 2010-2015.". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1431256. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1431256.
@article{osti_1431256,
title = {Analysis of SNL/MSU/DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials 2010-2015.},
author = {Mandell, John F. and Samborsky, Daniel D. and Miller, David A. and Agastra, Pancasatya and Sears, Aaron T.},
abstractNote = {Wind turbine blades are designed to several major structural conditions, including tip deflection, strength and b uckling during severe loading, as well as very high numbers of fatigue cycles and various service environments. The MSU Database Program has, since 1989, addressed the broad range of properties needed for current and potential blade materials through stati c and fatigue testing and test development in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and wind industry and supplier partners. This report is the latest in a series, giving test results and analysis for the period 2010 - 2015. Program data are compiled in a public database [1] and other reports and publications given in the cited references. The report begins with an executive summary and introductory material including background discussion of previous related studies. Section 3 describes experimental methods including processing, test methods, instrumentation and test development. Section 4 provides static tension, compression and shear stress - strain properties in three directions using coupons sectioned from a thick infused unidirectional glass/epoxy laminate. The nonlinear, shear dominated static properties were characterized with loading - u nloading - reloading (LUR) tests in tension and compression to increasing load levels, for +-45O laminates. Section 5 explores the origins of tensile fatigue sensitivity in glass fiber dominated laminates with variations in fabric architecture including speci ally prepared fabrics and aligned strand laminates. Several types of resins are considered, with variations in resin toughness and bonding to fibers, as well as cure cycle variations for an epoxy. Conclusions are drawn as to the limits of tensile fatigue r esistance and the effects of resin type and fabric architecture, including the behavior of a commercial aligned glass strand product. Interactions between cyclic fatigue response and creep are addressed for off - axis (+-45O) glass/epoxy laminates in Sectio n 6. The nonlinear fatigue and creep stress - strain and cumulative strain response are characterized in tension and compression as a function of stress level, cycles and cumulative time, using square and sinewave loading over a broad range of frequency. The results are analyzed in terms of the cycles and cumulative time under load. A cumulative strain failure criterion is established, and used to construct shear and tension constant life diagrams (CLD's) with data for nine R - values. The effects of a more duc tile urethne resin are also explored. A previous study of thick adhesives testing is extended to mixed mode fracture mechanics testing in Section 7. Mechanisms of static and fatigue crack extension near the laminate adherend interface are reported in deta il. Data are presented for mixed mode adhesive fracture, compared to mixed mode fracture in ply delamination. Fatigue crack growth exponents are also developed for a mixed mode cracked lap shear coupon. The data for fatigue trends and relative failure stra ins and exponents are compared for various blade component materials in Section 8. The effects of temperature and seawater saturation are considered for selected materials of interest for wind and hydrokinetic turbine blades in Section 9. Section 10 gives detailed conclusions for each section. A cknowledgements The research presented in this report was carried out under Sandia National Laboratories purchase orders 1325028 an d 1543945 between 2010 and 2015, with support from the DOE Wind and Water Technologies Office . In addition to the authors listed, significant contributions were made by Patrick Flaherty, Pancastya Agastra, Michael Schuster, and Michael Voth. Industry m aterials suppliers include Vectorply, Saertex, OCV, AGY, Bayer, Ashland, 3M and Nextel. Industry suppliers with significant contributions to the study were Hexion, PPG, Reichhold, Gurit and NEPTCO. Intentionally Left Blank},
doi = {10.2172/1431256},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1431256}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {2}
}