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Title: Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks

Abstract

A biorefinery, considered a chemical process plant under the Clean Air Act permitting program, could be classified as a major or minor source based on the size of the facility and magnitude of regulated pollutants emitted. Our previous analysis indicates that a biorefinery using fast pyrolysis conversion process to produce finished gasoline and diesel blendstocks with a capacity of processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day would likely be classified as a major source because several regulated pollutants (such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) are estimated to exceed the 100 tons per year (tpy) major source threshold, applicable to chemical process plants. Being subject to a major source classification could pose additional challenges associated with obtaining an air permit in a timely manner before the biorefinery can start its construction. Recent developments propose an alternative approach to utilize bio-oil produced via the fast pyrolysis conversion process by shipping it to an existing petroleum refinery, where the raw bio-oil can be blended with petroleum-based feedstocks (e.g., vacuum gas oil) to produce gasoline and diesel blendstocks with renewable content. Without having to hydro-treat raw bio-oil, a biorefinery is likely to reduce its potential-to-emit to below the 100 tpymore » major source threshold, and therefore expedite its permitting process. We compare the PTE estimates for the two biorefinery designs with and without hydrotreating of bio-oils and examine the air permitting implications on potential air permit classification and discuss the best available control technology requirements for the major source biorefinery utilizing hydrotreating operation. Our analysis is expected to provide useful information to new biofuel project developers to identify opportunities to overcome challenges associated with air permitting.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1431250
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-6A20-68372
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the 110th Air and Waste Management Association Annual Conference and Exhibition (ACE 2017), 5-8 June 2017, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; biorefinery; potential to emit; bio-oil; emissions; federal regulations; fast pyrolysis; ex situ pyrolysis

Citation Formats

Bhatt, Arpit H, and Zhang, Yi Min. Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Bhatt, Arpit H, & Zhang, Yi Min. Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks. United States.
Bhatt, Arpit H, and Zhang, Yi Min. Thu . "Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1431250,
title = {Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks},
author = {Bhatt, Arpit H and Zhang, Yi Min},
abstractNote = {A biorefinery, considered a chemical process plant under the Clean Air Act permitting program, could be classified as a major or minor source based on the size of the facility and magnitude of regulated pollutants emitted. Our previous analysis indicates that a biorefinery using fast pyrolysis conversion process to produce finished gasoline and diesel blendstocks with a capacity of processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day would likely be classified as a major source because several regulated pollutants (such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) are estimated to exceed the 100 tons per year (tpy) major source threshold, applicable to chemical process plants. Being subject to a major source classification could pose additional challenges associated with obtaining an air permit in a timely manner before the biorefinery can start its construction. Recent developments propose an alternative approach to utilize bio-oil produced via the fast pyrolysis conversion process by shipping it to an existing petroleum refinery, where the raw bio-oil can be blended with petroleum-based feedstocks (e.g., vacuum gas oil) to produce gasoline and diesel blendstocks with renewable content. Without having to hydro-treat raw bio-oil, a biorefinery is likely to reduce its potential-to-emit to below the 100 tpy major source threshold, and therefore expedite its permitting process. We compare the PTE estimates for the two biorefinery designs with and without hydrotreating of bio-oils and examine the air permitting implications on potential air permit classification and discuss the best available control technology requirements for the major source biorefinery utilizing hydrotreating operation. Our analysis is expected to provide useful information to new biofuel project developers to identify opportunities to overcome challenges associated with air permitting.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2018},
month = {Thu Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2018}
}

Conference:
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